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What are the internal security challenges being faced by India? Give out the role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies tasked to counter such threats.

Q19. What are the internal security challenges being faced by India? Give out the role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies tasked to counter such threats. (15m) – Internal Security


India is facing constant security threats both internally and externally across the length and breadth of the Country. According to the World Internal Security and Police Index, India ranks 104 out of 127 countries due to a variety of internal security threats persisting in the nation.


Internal Security Challenges being faced by India

Traditional threats:

  • Left wing Extremism/Naxalism: Spread in many red corridor states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh etc.
  • Insurgency in North East: Demand for greater Nagalim, Bodoland.
  • Militancy in Jammu and Kashmir
  • Organised Crime: Drug trafficking, arms smuggling (proximity with golden triangle and golden crescent)
  • Illegal Immigration and Refugee Crisis: Bru Refugee crisis, infiltration from Bangladesh.
  • Communal Violence and Religious Fundamentalism

Non-traditional threats:

  • Money-laundering:  through Hawala, Shell Companies, casinos etc.
  • Maritime Security: Piracy, smuggling, trafficking through sea.
  • Cyber threats:  According to the Global information Safety Report India has one of the highest cyber attacks. Eg. Ransomware attack on servers of AIIMS Delhi. 
  • Neo-terrorism: Lone-wolf attacks,over ground workers (OGWs)

To address these challenges various intelligence and investigative agencies play significant roles in following manner:

Role of Central Intelligence and Investigative agencies

  • National Investigation Agency: It performs counter-terrorism operations and performs in depth investigation of offences with scientific techniques, special NIA courts for speedy trials.

E.g. Recent raid by NIA in Tamil Nadu to foil ISIS-inspired recruitment drive.

  • Enforcement Directorate: Role in countering terror financing and money laundering activities. Deals with enforcement of rules under PMLA,2002 and FEMA,1999.

E.g. Action Popular Front of India for money laundering activities.

  • Research and Analysis Wing: For covert operations and counter-terrorism efforts.
    • Intelligence Bureau: Serves as India’s internal security agency responsible for mitigating domestic threats. Major task of intelligence collection and act as security advisor to the state.
    • Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation: To deal with criminal activities like tax evasions and money laundering.
    • Narcotics Control Bureau: To combat illicit trafficking and drug abuse.
  • Central Bureau of Investigation: Deals with economic crimes and other conventional crimes.
  • National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO): It also includes National Institute of Cryptology Research and Development (NICRD) which is the first of its kind in Asia.


To tackle the multidimensional nature of threats and security challenges, increased coordination between investigation and intelligence agencies is significant. Effective utilisation of Multi-Agency Centre will help in ensuring such coordination and tackle the security challenges effectively.


Check out the UPSC Mains GS Paper 3 2023 Analysis with detailed expatiation of the topics of Mains GS Paper 3 By the Study IQ Experts

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