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National Language of India 2023, List of 22 Official Languages of India

National Language of India

Every region of India has a different culture, making it a diversified nation. Each of the 28 states and 8 Union Territories that make up this union represents its own unique cultural heritage and dialect. There are 22 scheduled languages in all, and they are all extensively spoken in various states, according to the eighth schedule of the Indian constitution. It was challenging to choose the national language of India because there are so many different languages spoken there. Know the national language of India inside and out for example What is the language spoken in India?, Which language is India’s national tongue and many more here.

  • With numerous ethnic cultures, traditions, and languages, India is a democratic nation. Different ethnic groups in India speak a wide range of languages.
  • The phrase “Indian language changes every few kilometres just like the water” is true when referring to the country’s language. This is true in every sense, thus it makes sense. India, a union of 28 states plus 8 union territories, has a wide range of languages that shift every few kilometres.
  • There have been numerous discussions on the national language since the Constitution’s inception. India does not, however, have a national language.

India’s National Language and an official language are two different things. You will learn more about India’s official language and the National Language of India in this article with all aspects.

National Language of India as per Constitution

Due to the country’s cultural variety, none of the languages are given the status of the National Language of India. In India, less than 44% of the population speaks Hindi. For many years, there has been discussion about making Hindi an official language, but with no success. As per the Indian constitution, there is no language that is designated as India’s national language till date. To be used for official purposes across the nation, Hindi and English have been designated as the official languages.

Constitutional Provisions

Article 343(1) of the Indian Constitution states that Hindi written in Devanagari will be the official language of the Union. The international version of Indian numerals shall be utilized for all official purposes of the Union.

Only Hindi or English is allowed for official business in the Indian parliament and government buildings. In the entire nation, English may be used for official purposes, including legislative proceedings, correspondence between the Central Government and a State Government, and legal processes.

  • In accordance with Article 343, the Central Government only communicates with the states in the Hindi Belt in Hindi.
  • When interacting with the states, English is to be used as an Associate Official Language.

List of 22 Official Languages of India

The eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution recognizes 22 different languages. Articles 343 to 351 of Part XVII of the Indian Constitution address the country’s official tongues.

The remaining languages were eventually added, following a number of changes, as initially only 14 languages were specified. Check here the list of all 22 Indian languages that the Indian Constitution recognizes.

Sr. No Language Recognition in state
1 Assamese Assam, Arunachal Pradesh
2 Bengali West Bengal, Tripura
3 Bodo Assam
4 Dogri Official language of Jammu and Kashmir
5 Gujarati Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Gujarat
6 Hindi Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal
7 Kannada Karnataka
Kashmiri Jammu and Kashmir
9 Konkani Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala (The Konkan Coast)
10 Maithili Bihar, Jharkhand
11 Malayalam Kerala, Lakshadweep, Puducherry
12 Manipuri Manipur
13 Marathi Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu
14 Nepali Sikkim and West Bengal
15 Odia Official language of Odisha
16 Punjabi Official language of Punjab and Chandigarh,

2nd official language of Delhi and Haryana

17 Sanskrit Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand
18 Santali Spoken by Santhal people mainly in the state of Jharkhand as well as in the states of Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Mizoram, Odisha, Tripura, West Bengal
19 Sindhi Gujarat and Maharashtra, especially Ulhasnagar
20 Tamil Tamil Nadu, Puducherry
21 Telugu Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Puducherry
22 Urdu Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Jharkhand, Delhi, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal

National Language Vs Official Language

Any language that is spoken by a sizable portion of a country’s population is considered the national language. It serves social, cultural, and political purposes. The language used for official activity, such as in the national court, parliament, or for business purposes, is often acknowledged and adopted by the government or in the legislature.

In accordance with Article 343, the Central Government shall communicate with the Hindi States in Hindi. When communicating with the states, English is to be utilized as an associate official language. Hindi and English are therefore the official languages of India, not the national languages, as stated in the Constitution.

How Many Languages in India?

India contains 1599 other languages in addition to its 122 major languages, according to the 2001 Census of India. However, data from other sources varies, partly because “language” and “dialect” are defined differently in different sources. In the 2001 Census, it was noted that 122 languages were spoken by more than 10,000 persons, and 30 languages were spoken by more than a million native speakers.

How Many Languages Are Spoken in India?

India, behind Papua New Guinea (840), has the second-highest number of languages, according to the People’s Linguistic Survey of India (780). Ethnologue gives a lower figure of 456, however. The 2011 Census of India identified 270 mother tongues with 10,000 or more speakers each. Included in them are “123 mother tongues grouped under the Scheduled Languages and 147 mother tongues grouped under the Non-Scheduled Languages.” The unscheduled languages include Bhili (10 million speakers) and Gangte (16,000 speakers).

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National Language of India FAQs

What is the Official Language of India?

The eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution recognizes 22 different languages. Articles 343 to 351 of Part XVII of the Indian Constitution address the country's official tongues.

How many languages have been recognized in the eighth schedule of the Indian constitution?

The eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution recognizes 22 different languages.

What are the 22 Official languages of India?

Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu are the 22 Official languages of India.

Is Hindi the national language of India?

Hindi is not India's national language; it is an official language.

Which are the most spoken languages of India?

In India, the languages spoken the most frequently are Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Telugu, and Tamil.

Does India have a national language?

At present, India has no national language, but as per the article 343(1) of the constitution of India Hindi in Devanagari script and English are the official languages in India.

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