The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC
- Violence, in the form of sexual harassment at the workplace, is both direct and structural.
- Vishaka guidelines were framed by the Supreme Court of India in 1997
- The Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) annual report available for 2020-21 shows that though the participation of women in the total labour force grew, i.e., Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR) has gradually increased from 17.5% in 2017-18 to 25.1% in 2020-21, and the Worker Population Ratio (WPR) from 16.5% in 2017-18 to 24.2% in 2020-21, it is still much less when compared to men.
- While LFPR is defined as the percentage of persons in the labour force among the persons in population (i.e., both employed and unemployed or seeking employment), WPR is the percentage of persons employed among the persons in population.
- Unless the mindset of treating men and women as equals is developed at an early stage of character formation during childhood, the stereotyped power relation between the two would be difficult to change later.
- the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal), Act, 2013
- Medium-term goals may include the increase of female participation in the labour force, improvement of tooth-to-tail ratio, and providing incentives to prevent drop-outs such as paid maternity leave. However, in the long-run, it is essential to address the deep-rooted structural and cultural violence which puts women in a disadvantageous position.
- The Vishaka guidelines (legally binding) were laid down by the Supreme Court in a judgment in 1997. This was in a case filed by women’s rights groups, one of which was Vishaka.
- The guidelines defined sexual harassment and imposed three key obligations on institutions — prohibition, prevention, redress.
- The Supreme Court directed that they should establish a Complaints Committee, which would look into matters of sexual harassment of women at the workplace.
- The 2013 Act broadened these guidelines.
- About the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act of 2013:
- The law against sexual harassment is commonly known as the prevention of sexual harassment or POSH Act, passed by Parliament in 2013.
- Definition of sexual harassment:
- Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition And Redressal) Act, 2013 defines sexual harassment:
- It includes “any one or more” of the following “unwelcome acts or behaviour”committed directly or by implication: Physical contact and advances, Sexually coloured remarks, Showing pornography, A demand or request for sexual favours, Any other unwelcome physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct of sexual nature.
Key provisions of the act:
- This Act lays down the procedures for a complaint and inquiry and the action to be taken.
- It mandates that every employer constitute an Internal Complaints Committee (ICC) at each office or branch with 10 or more employees.
- It lays down the procedures and defines various aspects of sexual harassment.
- A woman can be of any age, whether employed or not, who “alleges to have been subjected to any act of sexual harassment”, that means the rights of all the women working or visiting any workplace, in any capacity, are protected under the Act.
- Meeting in person after nearly eight months, the GST Council last Saturday reached a broad consensus on establishing GST Appellate Tribunals to resolve disputes under the tax regime launched in July 2017.
What is GST Appellate Tribunal?
- The GST Appellate Tribunal is a quasi-judicial body proposed to be established to resolve disputes related to the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India.
- It will function as an independent body to hear appeals against orders passed by the GST authorities or the Appellate Authority.
- The tribunal will be composed of a national bench and various regional benches, headed by a chairperson appointed by the central government.
- The proposed tribunal is expected to help expedite the resolution of disputes related to GST and reduce the burden on the judiciary.
- The Council was informed that GST was still not delivering enough revenues — with the aggregate tax rate close to 12% rather than the 15.5% revenue-neutral rate envisaged originally, “knowingly or unknowingly” due to rate cuts on some items between 2017 and 2021.
- It is a joint forum of the Centre and the states which was set up by the President as per Article 279A (1) of the amended Constitution.
- the Union Finance Minister (chairperson), the Union Minister of State (Finance) from the Centre.
- Each state can nominate a minister in-charge of finance or taxation or any other minister as a member.
- The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has drafted a Digital Personal Data Protection (DPDP) Bill.
- First, the Bill seeks to dilute the provisions of the Right to Information (RTI) Act, which has empowered citizens to access information and hold governments accountable.
- The RTI Act includes a provision to protect privacy through Section 8(1)(j). In order to invoke this Section to deny personal information, at least one of the following grounds has to be proven: the information sought has no relationship to any public activity or public interest or is such that it would cause unwarranted invasion of privacy and the Public Information Officer is satisfied that there is no larger public interest that justifies disclosure. The proposed Bill seeks to amend this Section to expand its purview and exempt all personal information from the ambit of the RTI Act.
- Justice A.P. Shah Report on privacy that the “Privacy Act should clarify that publication of personal data for public interest… and disclosure of information as required by the Right to Information Act should not constitute an infringement of Privacy.”
- Second, by empowering the executive to draft rules on a range of issues, the proposed Bill creates wide discretionary powers for the Central government and thus fails to safeguard people’s right to privacy. For instance, under Section 18, it empowers the Central government to exempt any government, or even private sector entities, from the provisions of the Bill by merely issuing a notification.
- The Bill does not ensure autonomy of the Data Protection Board, the institution responsible for enforcement of provisions of the law. The Central government is empowered to determine the strength and composition of the Board and the process of selection and removal of its chairperson and other members.
- Justice K. S. Puttaswamy (Retd) vs Union of India 2017:
- In August 2017, a nine-judge bench of the Supreme Court in Justice K. S. Puttaswamy (Retd) Vs Union of India unanimously held that Indians have a constitutionally protected fundamental right to privacy that is an intrinsic part of life and liberty under Article 21.
- N. Srikrishna Committee 2017:
- Government appointed a committee of experts for Data protection under the chairmanship of Justice B N Srikrishna in August 2017, that submitted its report in July 2018 along with a draft Data Protection Bill.
- On Monday, the Supreme Court dismissed a petition seeking to increase the minimum age of marriage of women in India from 18 years to 21 years. The Chief Justice of India, D.Y. Chandrachud, noted that the power to amend the law lies with Parliament.
- The Prohibition of Child Marriage (Amendment) Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha in December 2021. The Bill proposes to raise the age of marriage for women from 18 to 21 years. But after Opposition MPs demanded greater scrutiny of the Bill, it was referred to the Parliamentary Standing Committee.
- Despite such a high share of women marrying before turning 18 years, only 1,050 cases were registered under The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act in 2021, according to the National Crime Records Bureau. Such a small number of cases shows that reportage of underage marriages is negligible, resulting in limited enforcement of the law.
Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006
- This Act replaced the Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929 which was enacted during the British era.
- It defines a child to mean a male below 21 years and female below 18 years.
- “Minor” is defined as a person who has not attained the age of majority as per the Majority Act.
- It envisages preventing child marriage with punishments of rigorous imprisonment for two years and/ or fine of Rs. 1 lakh.
- The Act also provides for the appointment of Child Marriage Prohibition Officer whose duties are to prevent child marriages and spread awareness regarding the same.
- Researchers from the U.S. have proposed that billions of tonnes of dust can be launched from the moon to a point in space where the earth’s and the Sun’s gravitational fields cancel each other out. The dust will thus be ‘parked’ there, casting a shadow on earth and dimming sunlight to offset carbon emissions.
- While aerosols in the stratosphere, especially radiation-scattering ones such as sulphates, do have a cooling effect
- Blocking one to two per cent of the Sun’s rays is all it would take to lower Earth’s surface by a degree or two Celsius — roughly the amount it has warmed over the last century.
- The solar radiation technique with the most traction so far is the 24/7 injection of billions of shiny sulphur particles into the upper atmosphere.
- The Philippines invoked the dispute settlement mechanism of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in 2013 to test the legality of China’s ‘nine-dash line’ regarding the disputed Spratlys. In response, the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) at The Hague decreed in its July 12, 2016 judgment that the line had “no legal basis.” China dismissed the judgment as “null and void.”
- The South China Sea (SCS) is important not just to its littoral countries. It has been a transit point for trade since early medieval times, contains abundantly rich fisheries, and is a repository of mineral deposits and hydrocarbon reserves.
- Vietnam has added six Kilo-class, Russian-origin submarines to its navy. France, Germany and the Netherlands, respectively, have supplied Formidable-class stealth ships to Singapore, patrol boats to Brunei Darussalam, and corvettes to Indonesia.
- Japan is partially funding the upgradation of the Indonesian coast guard. Indonesia and the Philippines are in early stages of exploring procurement of the BrahMos missile from India. The other ASEAN countries that have shown interest are Thailand and Vietnam.
- The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 1982 is an international agreement that establishes the legal framework for marine and maritime activities.
- It is also known as Law of the Sea. It divides marine areas into five main zones namely- Internal Waters, Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the High Seas.
- It is the only international convention which stipulates a framework for state jurisdiction in maritime spaces. It provides a different legal status to different maritime zones.
Q) Exercise Dustlik is a joint military exercise between which of the following countries?
- India and Kazakistan
- India and Japan
- India and Uzbekistan
- India and Indonesia
अभ्यास डस्टलिक निम्नलिखित में से किस देश के बीच एक संयुक्त सैन्य अभ्यास है?
- भारत और कजाकिस्तान
- भारत और जापान
- भारत और उज्बेकिस्तान
- भारत और इंडोनेशिया
A military exercise DUSTLIK (2023) will be conducted from February 20th to 5th March 2023 in Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand.
- It is a military-to-military exchange program between the Indian Army and Uzbekistan Army.
- It is the fourth edition of the biennial training Exercise.
- The Indian contingent will be represented by the 14th Battalion, The GARHWAL RIFLES, part of Western Command in this bilateral exercise.
- The Uzbekistan Army will be represented by troops of the North Western Military District of Uzbekistan Army.
- This joint exercise is aimed at enhancing military capability to undertake multi-domain operations in a Sub Conventional scenario under United Nations Mandate.
Q) Valmiki Tiger Reserve, which was recently seen in the news is located in which state?
हाल ही में खबरों में रहा वाल्मीकि टाइगर रिजर्व किस राज्य में स्थित है?
Recently, the Bihar state government has decided to increase rhino-bearing areas in Valmiki Tiger Reserve (VTR) in the West Champaran district by five per cent in the next two years.
- Valmiki Tiger Reserve forms the easternmost limit of the Himalayan Terai forests in India.
- It is the only tiger reserve in Bihar which is situated in the Gangetic Plains bio-geographic zone of the country.
- The forest of this region has a combination of bhabar and terai tracts.
- Rivers Gandak (west of VTR), Pandai, Manor, Harha, Masan and Bhapsa flow through various parts of the reserve.
Q) Consider the following statements:
- It is a form of mask dance that uses vigorous martial movements to narrate mythological stories.
- There are three main styles of the dance named after the location where they are performed, i.e. Purulia, Seraikella, and Mayurbhanj.
- Some narrations also use natural themes such as Sarpa nritya or Mayur Nritya.
The above statements are associated with
निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:
- यह मुखौटा नृत्य का एक रूप है जिसमें पौराणिक कहानियों को सुनाने के लिए जोरदार मार्शल आंदोलनों का उपयोग किया जाता है।
- नृत्य की तीन मुख्य शैलियां उस स्थान के नाम पर हैं जहां उनका प्रदर्शन किया जाता है, अर्थात पुरुलिया, सरायकेला और मयूरभंज।
- कुछ आख्यान प्राकृतिक विषयों का भी उपयोग करते हैं जैसे सर्प नृत्य या मयूर नृत्य।
उपरोक्त कथन संबंधित हैं
- Chhau dance, also spelled Chhou dance, is a semi classical Indian dance with martial and folk traditions.
- The dance ranges from celebrating martial arts, acrobatics and athletics performed in festive themes of a folk dance, to a structured dance with religious themes found in Shaivism, Shaktism and Vaishnavism.
- The costumes vary between the styles, with Purulia and Serakeilla using masks to identify the character.
- Chhau is found in three styles named after the location where they are performed, i.e. the Purulia Chau of Bengal, the Seraikella Chau of Jharkhand, and the Mayurbhanj Chau of Odisha.
Q) A legislation which confers on the executive or administrative authority an unguided and uncontrolled discretionary power in the matter of application of law violates which one of the following Articles of the Constitution of India?
- Article 14
- Article 28
- Article 32
- Article 44
एक कानून जो कार्यकारी या प्रशासनिक प्राधिकरण को कानून के आवेदन के मामले में एक अनियंत्रित और अनियंत्रित विवेकाधीन शक्ति प्रदान करता है, भारत के संविधान के निम्नलिखित में से किस अनुच्छेद का उल्लंघन करता है?
- अनुच्छेद 14
- अनुच्छेद 28
- अनुच्छेद 32
- अनुच्छेद 44
- Explanation: Administrative discretion is against equality and it becomes the cause of arbitrariness, discrimination and unjust action.
- In Jayantilal Kalidas Mehta vs The State of Maharashtra 1970 case, some sections were contended that gave unguided, uncontrolled and arbitrary powers to the collector, which were violating Article 14 of the constitution.
Q) Which one of the following factors constitutes the best safeguard of liberty in a liberal democracy?
- A committed judiciary
- Centralisation of powers
- Elected government
- Separation of powers
निम्नलिखित कारकों में से कौन सा एक उदार लोकतंत्र में स्वतंत्रता की सर्वोत्तम सुरक्षा का गठन करता है?
- एक प्रतिबद्ध न्यायपालिका
- शक्तियों का केंद्रीकरण
- निर्वाचित सरकार
- शक्तियों का पृथक्करण
- Explanation: Separation of Power between legislative, executive and judiciary maintains checks and balances in the system.
- It establishes limited government. Thus it is the best safeguard of liberty in a liberal democracy.