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Quantum Computing, Difference from Classical Computing, Application

Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing: A branch of computing known as quantum computing is founded on the concepts of quantum theory, which describes how energy and matter behave at the atomic and subatomic scales. Quantum bits, or qubits, are being used. It makes use of the special property of subatomic participles, which enables them to exist simultaneously in two states, namely a 1 and a 0.

These supercomputers are based on two aspects of quantum physics: superposition and entanglement. This enables quantum computers to perform tasks at speeds that are exponentially faster than those of ordinary computers while using significantly less energy.

Quantum Computing Overview

The study of quantum computing is concerned with developing computer technology based on quantum theory, which describes the nature and behaviour of matter at the quantum level. Many nations, including Israel, the USA, China, Europe, and Australia, have already made significant investments in the study of quantum information and technologies. While working at the Argonne National Labs in the United States in 1981, Paul Benioff invented the fundamental components of quantum computing.

  • Superposition and entanglement, two aspects of quantum physics, are the foundation of quantum computing
  • A quantum system’s capacity to exist simultaneously in several states is known as superposition. On the other hand, entanglement refers to the capacity of a pair of qubits to exist in a single quantum state.
  • These two characteristics enable quantum computers to perform functions beyond the capabilities of ordinary computers while using less energy.
  • When it was discovered that some computer problems could be solved more effectively with quantum algorithms than with their classical equivalents, research in quantum computing started in the 1980s.
  • The realms of finance, the military, intelligence, drug development, artificial intelligence, and digital manufacturing would all benefit greatly from quantum computing.

Various Qubit Technologies for Quantum Computing

  • Superconducting Qubits: They are based on electrical circuits made of superconducting materials, typically niobium or aluminium.
  • Trapped Ion Qubits: Trapped ion qubits use ions (charged atoms) that are trapped and manipulated using electromagnetic fields. The qubit states are typically encoded in the internal energy levels of the ions.
  • Topological Qubits: Topological qubits are based on topological properties of certain exotic states of matter. These qubits rely on anyons, which are quasi-particles that emerge in two-dimensional systems.
  • Quantum Dot Qubits: Quantum dots are nanoscale regions that can confine and manipulate individual electrons. Qubits are encoded in the spin or charge states of these confined electrons.
  • Photonic Qubits: Photonic qubits use particles of light, known as photons, as qubits. The qubit states are typically encoded in the polarization or the path of the photons.
  • Majorana Qubits: Majorana qubits are based on quasi-particles called Majorana fermions, which are predicted to exist in certain solid-state systems.

Difference between Quantum Computing and Classical Computing

Check the difference between Quantum Computing and Classical Computing in the table given below:

Quantum computing Classical computing
Based on the phenomenon of Quantum Mechanics or quantum physics. Based on the phenomenon of classical physics.
Information storage and manipulation are based on Quantum Bit or “qubit” i.e. 0, 1, and superposition state of both 0 and 1 to represent information. Information storage and manipulation are based on “bit”, which is based on voltage or charge; low is 0, and high is 1.
It is possible to be in more than one state at a time. There is the possibility of being only in a single state at a given time, either on or off.
In quantum computers, data processing is done in the Quantum Processing Unit or QPU, which consists of several interconnected qubits. In conventional computers, data processing is done in a Central Processing Unit or CPU, which consists of an Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), processor registers, and a control unit.
Quantum computers will allow much larger calculations. Classical computers are limited in terms of size and complexity.

Applications of Quantum Computing

A game-changing technology for many different sectors, governments, and society at large might be quantum computing. The application of quantum computing is numerous check some of them below:

Aerospace Industry

  • The computational difficulties in aviation modelling, simulation, and other fields can be greatly reduced by quantum computing.
  • Additionally, it might provide insight into the ideal speed and fuel consumption for a commercial aircraft, thereby assisting the sector in enhancing its sustainability performance.

Artificial Intelligence and Big Data

  • By enabling AI programmes to sift through the enormous datasets pertaining to medical research, consumer behaviour, financial markets, etc., quantum computers could enhance machine learning.
  • Data integration, pattern recognition, and fast analysis are all made possible by quantum computing.


  • The detection of gravitational waves will be aided by the quantum computer’s scalability.
  • can be used to search the universe for planets that are hospitable.
  • can support space suit and spacecraft modelling and design.


  • Early detection of cancers and the creation of medications with improved targeting will accelerate the field of pharmacology.
  • Could be applied to deliver quicker, more precise diagnoses.
  • Reduce the amount of radiation damage to healthy tissue by allowing therapists to perform more simulations in a shorter amount of time.
  • Could speed up precision medicine.


  • A weed optimisation method to assist in weed detection.
  • As a result, farmers can successfully create fertilisers.
  • can be used to decide how many inputs are appropriate.


  • Machine learning combined with quantum computing can aid in the development of numerous strategies to counter cybersecurity threats.
  • Quantum cryptography, another name for encryption, can also be developed with the aid of quantum computing.

Weather Forecasting and Climate Change

  • The ability of quantum computers to process enormous amounts of data quickly could in fact improve weather system modelling and enable scientists to quickly and accurately predict changing weather patterns, which can be crucial at this point in time when the world is experiencing climate change.
  • Meteorologists will be able to create and analyse more intricate climate models with quantum computers, which will give them a better understanding of climate change and how to slow it down.

Financial Services

  • By developing novel methods to analyse financial data and identifying important global risk indicators, quantum computers can be used for sophisticated financial modelling and risk management in the financial sector.
  • The employment of sophisticated algorithms to automatically initiate share dealings based on a wide range of market conditions is known as algorithmic trading.
  • Can be applied to stock markets to find issues.

Concerns Associated with Quantum Computing

  • Higher cost: The cost of setting of Quantum Computing system is high. It will require a significant support from multinational companies.
  • Temperature control: Quantum computers dissipate high heat and consume high amount of electric power. They require low temperature for operation.
  • High error rate: The error rate of Quantum Computing is high in comparison to error rate of conventional computers.
  • Sensitivity to Environment: Quantum technology is highly sensitive to environmental interference, such as temperature changes, magnetic fields, and vibrations.
    • Qubits are easily disrupted by their surroundings which can cause them to lose their quantum properties and make mistakes in calculations.
  • Limited Control: It is difficult to control and manipulate quantum systems. Quantum-powered AI could create unintended consequences.

Initiatives taken by the Government

Initiatives taken by the Government
Initiatives Details
National Quantum Mission (NQM)
  • In April 2023, the Union Cabinet approved the ₹6,003 crore National Quantum Mission (NQM) that will fund research and development of quantum computing technology and associated applications.
  • The mission will be implemented by the Department of Science & Technology (DST) under the Ministry of Science & Technology from 2023 to 2031.
  • Key feature of the NQM:
  • The new mission targets developing intermediate scale quantum computers with 50-1000 physical qubits in 8 years in various platforms like superconducting and photonic technology.
  • Satellite based secure quantum communications between ground stations over a range of 2000 kilometres within India, long distance secure quantum communications with other countries, inter-city quantum key distribution over 2000 km as well as multi-node Quantum network with quantum memories are also some of the deliverables of the Mission.
  • The mission will help develop magnetometers with high sensitivity in atomic systems and Atomic Clocks for precision timing, communications and navigation.
  • It will also support design and synthesis of quantum materials such as superconductors, novel semiconductor structures and topological materials for fabrication of quantum devices.
  • Four Thematic Hubs (T-Hubs) will be set up in top academic and National R&D institutes on the domains – Quantum Computing, Quantum Communication, Quantum Sensing & Metrology and Quantum Materials & Devices. The hubs which will promote R&D in areas that are mandated to them.
Quantum-Enabled Science and Technology (QuEST)
  • Department of Science and Technology (DST) will invest to develop infrastructure and facilitate research in the field of quantum technologies.
Quantum Frontier mission
  • The Prime Minister’s Science, Technology and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC) will promote understanding and control of quantum mechanical systems.
Quantum Computer Simulator Toolkit (QSim)
  • This will help researchers and students to write and debug Quantum Code that is necessary for developing Quantum Algorithms and carry out research in the field.
  • DST and research groups from IISER have launched I-HUB Quantum Technology Foundation (I-HUB QTF) to develop quantum technology.
Quantum Computing Applications Lab
  • Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) has collaborated with Amazon Web Services (AWS) to establish a to facilitate quantum computing-led research and development.

Quantum Computing UPSC

The competition to build a commercially viable quantum computer was sparked by quantum computing, which is related to artificial intelligence. The construction of a quantum computer would be a significant advancement above that of a contemporary computer because a quantum computer has enormous processing capability and can carry out operations concurrently using all permutations.

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Quantum Computing FAQs

What is quantum computing UPSC?

Quantum computing is a type of computing that utilizes the principles of quantum mechanics to process information.

What is the concept of quantum computing?

Quantum computing is a multidisciplinary field comprising aspects of computer science, physics, and mathematics that utilizes quantum mechanics to solve complex problems faster than on classical computers.

What is quantum computing in India?

Quantum computers have qubits that can process ones and zeroes simultaneously

Who is the father of quantum computing?

Quantum computers were proposed in the 1980s by Richard Feynman and Yuri Manin.

What is the main goal of quantum computing?

Quantum computers harness the laws of quantum mechanics to perform certain calculations exponentially faster than today's supercomputers.

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