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Net Domestic Product, Definition, Real and Nominal NDP

Net Domestic Product (NDP)

In the realm of economics, numerous indicators are utilized to gauge the health and performance of a nation’s economy. One such significant measure is the Net Domestic Product (NDP). As a widely recognized indicator, NDP plays a crucial role in assessing the economic growth and overall well-being of a country. Derived from the more commonly known Gross Domestic Product (GDP), NDP provides a deeper understanding of the economic output generated within a nation’s borders while accounting for depreciation and wear and tear on capital goods. 

Read about: Gross National Product

Types of NDP 

Net Domestic Product (NDP) encompasses different types based on the approach and scope of measurement. Here are three common types of NDP:

NDP at Market Prices

This type of NDP accounts for the depreciation of capital goods, such as machinery, equipment, and infrastructure, while considering market prices. It reflects the net value of goods and services produced within a country’s borders after deducting the depreciation of capital. By factoring in depreciation, this measure provides a more accurate representation of the economic output available for consumption or investment.

NDP at Factor Cost

NDP at factor cost takes into account the costs incurred in the production process, including indirect taxes and subsidies. It adjusts the market prices of goods and services to reflect the actual value added by different sectors of the economy. By excluding indirect taxes and subsidies, this measure provides a clearer picture of the income generated by the factors of production, such as labour and capital.

NDP at Income Cost

This type of NDP focuses on the income generated from production. It considers compensation for employees, operating surpluses, and mixed incomes. NDP at income cost takes into account the income received by individuals and organizations involved in the production process, such as wages, salaries, profits, and rents. It provides insights into the distribution of income and the overall economic well-being of a nation.

Calculation of NDP 

The calculation of Net Domestic Product (NDP) involves deducting depreciation from the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Depreciation accounts for the wear and tear or the loss in value of capital goods used in the production process. The formula for calculating NDP is as follows:

NDP = GDP – Depreciation

To calculate NDP, you need to obtain the values for GDP and depreciation. Here’s a breakdown of the components:

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

GDP represents the total value of all final goods and services produced within a country’s borders during a specific time period, typically a year. It encompasses consumption, investment, government spending, and net exports. GDP can be calculated using different approaches, such as the production approach, expenditure approach, or income approach.


Depreciation refers to the decrease in the value of capital goods due to wear and tear, obsolescence, or the passage of time. It accounts for the capital stock used in the production process that needs to be replaced over time. Depreciation can be estimated using various methods, such as the straight-line method or the declining balance method.

By subtracting the depreciation from GDP, we arrive at the Net Domestic Product (NDP), which represents the net value of goods and services produced within a country’s borders after accounting for the depreciation of capital goods.

Read about: External Debt of India

Importance of Net Domestic Product

The importance of Net Domestic Product can be summarized as follows:

  • Accurate Economic Measurement: NDP reflects the net value of goods and services after accounting for depreciation, providing a more accurate measure of economic output.
  • Indicator of Sustainability: By considering the depletion of capital goods, NDP helps evaluate an economy’s ability to sustain its productive capacity over time.
  • Insight into Income Distribution: NDP allows for a better understanding of income disparities and aids in designing policies for equitable income distribution.
  • Informed Policy Formulation: NDP guides policymakers in formulating effective economic policies and making informed decisions for sustainable growth.
  • International Comparisons: NDP enables meaningful comparisons of economic performance across countries, facilitating benchmarking and identification of relative economic positions.

Read about: Concept of GDP, GNP, NNP and NDP

Real NDP and Nominal NDP 

The following table presents a concise comparison between Real NDP and Nominal NDP, highlighting their key differences in terms of definition, adjustment for Inflation, purpose, calculation method, and policy implications.

Real NDP Nominal NDP
Definition Adjusted for inflation Not adjusted for inflation
Accounts for Changes in price levels over time Changes in both quantity and price
Purpose Measures purchasing power Reflects current market values
Calculation Uses a constant price base year Uses current prices
Importance Provides an inflation-adjusted view of economic output Represents the current value of goods and services produced
Policy Implications Helps in evaluating real economic growth Useful for short-term economic analysis and planning

Read about: NRI Deposits

Net Domestic Product UPSC 

Understanding Net Domestic Product (NDP) is important for UPSC aspirants as it is a topic included in the UPSC Syllabus, particularly in the Economics and Indian Economy sections. A thorough understanding of NDP, including its calculation, types, and significance, is crucial for answering questions related to national income accounting, economic indicators, and sustainable economic development. Aspirants can cover such topics from UPSC Online Coaching and practicing it through UPSC Mock Test to enhance their knowledge and be better prepared to tackle questions on this topic in the UPSC examinations.

Read about: FERA and FEMA

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Net Domestic Product FAQs

How do you calculate net domestic product?

Net Domestic Product (NDP) is calculated by subtracting depreciation from Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

What is an example of a net domestic product?

An example of Net Domestic Product (NDP) is the value of goods and services produced within a country's borders after accounting for depreciation.

What is net domestic product of a country?

Net Domestic Product (NDP) of a country represents the net value of goods and services generated within its borders after deducting depreciation.

What is net domestic product of India?

The Net Domestic Product (NDP) of India refers to the net value of goods and services produced within India's borders after accounting for depreciation.

What is the difference between GDP and NDP?

The difference between GDP and NDP is that GDP represents the total value of goods and services produced within a country's borders, while NDP deducts depreciation to provide a net value of production after accounting for capital depreciation.


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