Mysore Kingdom was controlled by the Wadiyar dynasty from 1399 to 1950, with a brief hiatus in the late 1700s. Under the Vijayanagara Emperor, they were a feudatory dynasty, but they were able to break free by taking advantage of the Empire’s flaws. Raja Odeyar conquered Srirangapatna, the Vijayanagar Viceroy’s residence, in 1610.
The Mysore kingdom developed a Sultanate administrative form while under brief Mughal rule. The kingdom was a part of the Dominion of India after regaining its freedom from British rule. You will learn about the Mysore Kingdom in this article, which will help you with your preparation for the UPSC Civil Service Exam in Modern Indian History.
Mysore Kingdom History During Mughals
The battle in western India between the Marathas and the Mughal Empire in the 17th century helped the Wadiyars or Wodeyars of Mysore. At the meeting point of the Eastern and Western Ghats, the Wodeyars ruled this nation. The area became a never-ending battleground as a result of the involvement of numerous powers who were all interested in this territory.
Haider Ali was eventually given control of the Mysore state, which he managed with difficulty. Seringapatam (now Shrirangapattana), Bangalore (now Bengaluru), and other cities were taken by the Mysorean Wadiyar monarch in 1610, solidifying Wadiyar dominance. After the death in 1707 of Aurangzeb, the last significant Mughal Emperor, later rulers of Mysore took advantage of internal power struggles within the Mughals to expand their control.
The Wodeyars’ successes, however, were relatively fleeting, since poor domestic management and interference in a series of conflicts on the plains eventually resulted in the military explorer Hyder Ali seizing power in 1761.
He expanded Mysore’s realm by invasions of the Malabar Coast and the Karnataka Plateau, but they also sparked a series of conflicts with the British known as the Mysore Wars. The Fourth Mysore War, which saw the death of his vivacious son Tippu Sultan at Seringapatam in 1799, and the eventual British conquest of Mysore.
Read about: Anglo-Mysore War
Mysore Kingdom Rise
The kingdom of Mysore had retained its tenuous independence since the fall of the Vijayanagar Empire and had only been a minimal component of the Mughal Empire. French experts assisted Haider in modernising his army by training a potent infantry and artillery corps and introducing European military discipline in the Mysore army.
The practice of levying land taxes directly on the peasants and collecting them through hired officials and in cash was adopted by Haider and later by his son Tipu Sultan, strengthening the state’s resource basis. Under Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan, the state of Mysore was actively involved in establishing a consolidated military empire.
It was drawn into a state of constant strife by its territorial ambitions and financial interests. In 1766, Haider Ali attacked and conquered Malabar and Calicut, greatly expanding the borders of Mysore. Along with the English, who Haider Ali beat at Madra in 1769, they were at odds with the Marathas and other regional powers like Hyderabad.
His son Tipu Sultan continued his father’s policies after he passed away in 1782. After being defeated by the English in 1799, his reign came to an end; he died protecting his hometown of Srirangapatna. Tipu minted coinage without making any mention of the Mughal emperor, in contrast to other eighteenth-century republics that did not contest the political validity of the Mughal emperor.
In order to legitimise his power, he substituted his name for the Emperor Shah Alam’s in the khutbas (Friday sermons at mosques). Finally, he asked the Ottoman Khalif for a sanad. However, he did not totally sever his connections with him, unlike the Mughal emperor. Tipu, a self-described “realist,” acknowledged Mughal authority when it was convenient and disregarded it when it was not.
Read about: Later Mughal
Mysore Kingdom and Haider Ali
In 1721, Haidar Ali was born into a low-income family. Haider Ali started his career as a horseman in the Mysore army, serving under the ministers of King Chikka Krishnaraja Wodeyar. Despite being illiterate, he possessed intelligence, diplomatic skills, and military prowess. He established himself as the de facto ruler of Mysore in 1761 with the help of the French troops, and he gave his army western training methods.
He captured Dod Ballapur, Sera, Bednur, and Hoskote in 1761-63, took control of the Marathas and the Nizami army, and forced the troublesome Poligars of South India to submit. Taxes were another kind of revenue they obtained from the growers. In order to construct a weapons factory in Dindigul (now Tamil Nadu) and introduce Western training techniques to his army, Haidar Ali engaged the assistance of the French.
He also started using his extensive diplomatic abilities to outsmart his opponents. After Madhavrao’s passing in 1772, Haidar Ali was forced to pay them large sums of money to secure their peace. Between 1774 and 1776, Haidar Ali repeatedly invaded the Marathas, regaining all the regions he had previously lost and capturing fresh territory. Hyder, who had a cancerous growth on his back, passed away in his tent on December 6, 1782.
Mysore Kingdom and Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan, often known as the Tiger of Mysore, was Haidar Ali’s son and a great fighter. His birthdate was November 1750. He had a good education and was fluent in Kanarese, Arabic, Persian, and Urdu. Like his father Haider Ali, Tipu placed a high priority on the creation and maintenance of a strong military force.
He led his army according to a model used in Europe and used Persian words of command. However, he never allowed them (the French) to develop as a pressure group, even though he enlisted the help of French officers to instruct his troops. Tipu was aware of the importance of a naval force.
In 1796, he founded the Board of Admiralty, and his plans were for a fleet of 20 large frigates and 22 battleships. He built three dockyards in Molidabad, Wajedabad, and Mangalore. However, none of his plans were realised. As India’s “pioneer of rocket technology,” he was also a promoter of science and technology.”
He wrote a manual for the military outlining how rockets function. He was also a pioneer in introducing sericulture to the Mysore state. As a brilliant negotiator and ardent lover of democracy, Tipu assisted the French soldiers in Seringapatam in founding a Jacobin Club in 1797.
Mysore Kingdom Decline
Despite modernising the nation’s military, economic, and technological infrastructure, Tipu failed to reform Mysore’s conventional educational system. During his rule, he didn’t found any universities or institutions for the military or engineers. With an English defeat in 1799, Tipu’s suzerainty came to an end. He was killed defending Srirangapatnam, his home city.
Mysore Kingdom UPSC
At the meeting point of the Eastern and Western Ghats, the Wodeyars ruled this nation. The region became a never-ending battleground due to the involvement of numerous powers with an interest in it. Haider Ali was eventually given control of the state of Mysore, which he managed with difficulty. Like his father, Tipu Sultan was frequently at odds with the British. Mysore Kingdom is fully described in this article for UPSC exam preparation.