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Q17. From being a net food importer in the 1960s, India has emerged as a net food exporter to the world. Provide reasons. (15m) Geography
1960 के दशक में शुद्ध खाद्य आयातक से, भारत विश्व में एक शुद्ध खाद्य निर्यातक के रूप में उभरा। कारण दीजिए। (उत्तर 250 शब्दों में दीजिए )
In 1960-61, India imported 3747 thousand tonnes of cereals. It reduced gradually to only 69.9 thousand tonnes by 2000-01. Today, India is a net exporter of food grains (largest exports of India Basmati rice and wheat).
Factors Contributing to Increased Agricultural Exports
- Financial Inclusion of farmers: Priority Sector lending, 1969- Nationalisation of Banking system, Establishment of Cooperative banks, 1982- establishment of NABARD.
- Technological Advancement: Launch of Green Revolution, Increased fertiliser uses, BT- Cotton- hybrid Variety against Bollworm, Soil Health card based on soil testing, farm Mechanisation (Distribution of tractors in Punjab Region).
- Increased irrigation: 1963- Bhakra Nangal Dam establishment, Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojna, Har khet ko pani, River Linking Project Ex Godavari- Ganga, Micro Irrigation fund.
- Transport and storage Facility: Lesser post-harvest losses; Cold Storage scheme; Launch of Kisan rail; Dedicated Freight Corridor; Food park scheme.
- Investment in Agricultural Research and Education: Agricultural universities and research institutions, such as the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).
- Trade Policies and Liberalisation: export of basmati rice, spices, and fruits to various countries.
- Rise of agro-processing: 1986 – formation of APEDA, processed foods in exports; processed food contributed 22.6% share of Agri-food exports in 2021-22
- Awareness Campaign: Project Arya (Attracting and Retaining of Youth in Agriculture(ARYA)
Promoting Women Farmers ownership.
Issues plaguing the India’s agricultural exports –
- Low GDP contribution – only 1.3%
- Non-tariff barriers – banning of agricultural products (Alphonso mango) in EU.
- Lack of branding
- Fragmented land holding – 86% of farmers with less than a hectare of land.
- Digital Illiteracy in rural areas.
Conclude by giving solutions to improve Indian agricultural exports – bringing equity in agriculture by removing regional disparities, Small size of farm to be backed by institutional credit at lower rate of interest, climate smart Agricultural research and farm extension practices etc.
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