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Five Year Plans of India List, Objectives and Achievements

Five Year Plans of India

The Five-Year Plans were a series of national economic development plans implemented by the Indian government to promote industrialization and economic growth. They were first introduced in India in 1951, shortly after India gained independence from British colonial rule, and continued until 2017.

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Objectives of Five Year Plans of India

The Five-Year Plans of India was a series of economic and social development initiatives launched by the Government of India to promote economic growth, social welfare, poverty reduction, regional balance and self-reliance in a planned and systematic manner.

Key Features of Five Year Plans of India

Here are some key features of the Five-Year Plans in India:

  • Goals: Each Five-Year Plan had specific goals and objectives that were designed to promote economic growth and development in different sectors, such as agriculture, industry, infrastructure, and social welfare.
  • Planning Commission: The Planning Commission of India was responsible for formulating the Five-Year Plans. The Commission would assess the current state of the economy, identify areas that needed improvement, and set targets for the next five years.
  • Implementation: The implementation of the Five-Year Plans was carried out through various government departments and agencies at the national, state, and local levels.
  • Funding: The funds required for implementing the Five-Year Plans were sourced from the government’s budget, loans from international organizations, and private investments.
  • Results: Over the years, the Five-Year Plans helped India achieve significant progress in various sectors, such as agriculture, education, healthcare, and infrastructure. However, some plans were more successful than others, and there were also instances of corruption and inefficiencies in implementation.

Current Status of Five Year Plans of India

The Government of India stopped the Five-Year Plans after the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2012-2017) and replaced them with a new think tank body called the Niti Aayog, which focuses on sustainable development goals and long-term planning.

List of Five Year Plans of India

Here is a complete list of Five Year Plans of India along with the Time Period and its Salient Features:

Five Year Plan Time Period Salient Features

Achievements 

First Plan 1951-1956
  • Focused on agriculture, power, and irrigation
  • Targeted a 2.1% increase in national income
  • Total outlay of Rs. 2069 crore
  • Aimed to increase food production and improve the standard of living for the poor
Increased agricultural production, setting up of the Bhilai Steel Plant and the Damodar Valley Corporation, establishment of the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs)
Second Plan 1956-1961
  • Emphasis on industrialization
  • Targeted a 25% increase in national income
  • Total outlay of Rs. 4,800 crore
  • Set up the Planning Commission to oversee and implement the plan
Established several public sector enterprises, including Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT), Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), and Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Green Revolution in agriculture
Third Plan 1961-1966
  • Continued focus on industrialization, with more emphasis on self-sufficiency
  • Targeted a 5.6% increase in national income
  • Total outlay of Rs. 9,475 crore
  • Introduced the concept of “import substitution” to reduce dependence on foreign goods
Establishment of major steel plants at Bokaro and Rourkela, expansion of the railway network, introduction of high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice
Fourth Plan 1969-1974
  • Focus on agriculture, employment, and poverty alleviation
  • Targeted a 5.7% increase in national income
  • Total outlay of Rs. 22,227 crore
  • Introduced the Green Revolution to increase food production
Increase in food grain production, establishment of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), launch of the Family Planning Programme
Fifth Plan 1974-1979
  • Emphasis on poverty alleviation, self-reliance, and social justice
  • Targeted a 4.4% increase in national income
  • Total outlay of Rs. 46,000 crore
  • Introduced the Twenty Point Programme to provide basic needs to the poor
Establishment of the Rural Electrification Corporation, launch of the Employment Guarantee Scheme, establishment of the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
Sixth Plan 1980-1985
  • Continued focus on poverty alleviation and self-reliance
  • Targeted a 5.2% increase in national income
  • Total outlay of Rs. 144,500 crore
  • Introduced measures to control population growth and improve education and health services
Focus on rural development and poverty alleviation, establishment of the Small Farmers’ Development Agency (SFDA), establishment of the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh to promote microfinance for women
Seventh Plan 1985-1990
  • Focus on improving productivity and modernizing industries
  • Targeted a 5% increase in national income
  • Total outlay of Rs. 487,000 crore
  • Introduced the concept of “appropriate technology” to improve production efficiency and reduce costs
Launch of the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana to promote employment, establishment of the Technology Development Board, initiation of the National River Conservation Plan
Eighth Plan 1992-1997
  • Emphasis on liberalization and globalization of the Indian economy
  • Targeted a 6.5% increase in national income
  • Total outlay of Rs. 825,000 crore
  • Introduced economic reforms to attract foreign investment and encourage entrepreneurship
Launch of economic reforms and liberalization, establishment of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), establishment of the National Renewal Fund to retrain retrenched workers
Ninth Plan 1997-2002
  • Focus on human development, poverty alleviation, and infrastructure development
  • Targeted a 7% increase in national income
  • Total outlay of Rs. 1,62,759 crore
  • Introduced the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan to provide universal primary education
Focus on infrastructure development, the establishment of the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), the launch of the National Programme of Mid-Day Meals in Schools
Tenth Plan 2002-2007
  • Emphasis on inclusive growth, employment generation, and rural development
  • Targeted an 8% increase in national income
  • Total outlay of Rs. 8,77,000 crore
  • Introduced the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act to provide employment to rural households
Launch of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan to promote universal education, establishment of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), increase in foreign direct investment
Eleventh Plan 2007-2012
  • Focus on inclusive growth, infrastructure development, and environmental sustainability
  • Targeted a 9% increase in national income
  • Total outlay of Rs. 36,44,000 crore
  • Introduced the National Skill Development Mission to improve the skills of the workforce
Establishment of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), launch of the National Solar Mission, expansion of the National Rural Health Mission
Twelfth Plan 2012-2017
  • Focus on faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth
  • Targeted an annual average GDP growth rate of 8%
  • Total outlay of Rs. 55,00,000 crore
  • Emphasized the need for social and economic reforms, including the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) and the Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) scheme
Establishment of the Goods and Services Tax (GST), the launch of the National Skill Development Mission, the launch of the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana to promote financial inclusion

Five-Year Plans of India Brief Analysis

The Five-Year Plans of India, spanning from 1951 to 2017, were instrumental in steering the country’s economic development and growth. The early plans, such as the First and Second, laid the groundwork for industrialization and agriculture.

The Green Revolution was initiated during the Third Plan, leading to increased food production. Subsequent plans addressed social justice, poverty alleviation, and human resource development. The Eighth Plan marked the beginning of economic liberalization, opening up the economy to foreign investment. The Tenth and Eleventh Plans emphasized inclusive growth, rural development, and social sectors. The Twelfth Plan focused on sustainable development, infrastructure, and manufacturing.

Post-2017, India shifted away from the traditional Five-Year Plan model, with the NITI Aayog taking charge of development strategies. Challenges ranged from financial constraints to regional imbalances and global economic uncertainties. Despite challenges, the plans achieved successes in infrastructure development, poverty alleviation, and technological advancements, shaping India’s economic and social landscape.

Five Year Plans of India UPSC

The Five-Year Plans of India is a crucial topic for UPSC aspirants because they form an important part of the Indian economy and polity. This topic is specifically mentioned in the UPSC Syllabus under General Studies paper III, which deals with the Indian economy, planning, and development. Aspirants who are preparing for UPSC exams need to have a clear understanding of the Five-Year Plans and their salient features to answer questions related to economic planning and development in India.

Moreover, online coaching and mock tests for UPSC exams often cover this topic in detail and provide aspirants with a comprehensive understanding of the Five-Year Plans and their importance in the Indian economy. Aspirants can benefit from UPSC Online Coaching by attending lectures, participating in discussions, and accessing study materials related to the Five-Year Plans. Similarly, the UPSC Mock Test can help aspirants assess their knowledge of this topic and identify areas that need further study.

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Five Year Plans of India FAQs

What is the five-year plan?

The five-year plan is a centralized economic plan that sets targets for industrial and agricultural production over a five-year period.

How many 5 year plans are there in India?

There were 12 five-year plans in India, starting from 1951 and ending in 2017.

What are the main goals of five-year plan?

The main goals of the five-year plans in India were to achieve rapid industrialization, increase agricultural production, reduce poverty and unemployment, and promote social welfare.

Who started 5 year plan in India?

The 5 year plan in India was started by the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, in 1951.

Who is the father of 2nd five-year plan?

The father of the second five-year plan in India was P.C. Mahalanobis, an Indian scientist and statistician who played a key role in the planning process.

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