The Faraizi Movement was an effort by Muslims in Eastern Bengal to stop engaging in un-Islamic behaviour and carry out their religious obligations. It was led by Haji Ali Hamza Awan. The 1819-founded movement made a significant contribution to the protection of tenants’ rights. They fought for significant spiritual, social, and political changes. You will learn about the Faraizi Movement (1838–57) in this article, which will help you prepare for the UPSC Civil Service Exam.
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Faraizi Movement History
In the nineteenth century, East Bengal experienced a comeback as its peasants were openly invited to take part and bring about reforms through a powerful religious movement. This religious movement was brand-new, had no ties to any other movements already in existence, and carried messages from the beginning of time. The organization gained so much traction that during the British era, the majority of the peasants in Bengal’s Eastern region agreed to its principles and were willing to participate in its religious activities.
To rehabilitate Islam and protect it from the atrocities of British rule was Haji Shariatullah’s goal. Many peasants from Bengal’s eastern region had converted to Hinduism during the dictatorship that followed, and the British government resisted these impending changes fiercely.
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Faraizi Movement Founder
In 1818, Haji Shariatullah established the “Faraizi Movement.” The movement aims to sanitise the religion by eliminating all doctrines and customs that go against Islamic precepts. Social disparity was the movement’s main concern, especially since British rule had a substantial impact on Muslims’ lives.
The Faraizi movement was an Islamist revivalist movement in the 19th century. It was founded in 1818 with the goal of spreading Shariatullah’s most recent Islamic research and upholding the Fard. After his father’s passing, Ahmad Dudu Miyan, Haji Shariatullah’s son, assumed leadership of the movement. In 1938, his supporters disobeyed the indigo planters’ demands and refused to pay taxes. The Dudu Miyan’s administrative centre was located in Bahadurpur. He inspired a new consciousness among the peasants by uniting them in opposition to zamindars and indigo planters.
The name “Fairazi” comes from the Urdu word “Farz,” which essentially denotes obligations imposed by Allah or God. As a result, the movement concentrated on informing individuals about their moral obligations under Allah. Since leaders like Shariatullah claimed that Islam had been diminished by British rule, it rose to prominence during the British Raj. Consequently, he planned to implement significant reforms through the campaign.
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Faraizi Movement Beginning
The Islamic-led Faraizi movement could be observed for the first time in a number of Bengali regions, with resounding English-Bengali support. The incensed landlords joined up with British officials to launch a propaganda campaign accusing the Faraizis of being mutinous. These Hindu landowners charged Haji Shariatullah with wanting to found his own nation in 1837.
Additionally, they brought numerous lawsuits against the Faraizis, making use of the enthusiastic support of European indigo planters. Police frequently detained Shariatullah for allegedly inciting agrarian unrest in Faridpur. Dudu Miyan, the son of Haji Shariatullah, led the movement in a more agricultural direction after his father’s passing. He mobilised the oppressed peasantry to rebel against the landowners.
The landlords and indigo growers retaliated by accusing Dudu Miyan of false crimes in an effort to control him. He became so well-liked among the farmers, nevertheless, that courts had trouble getting witnesses to testify against Dudu Miyan. The audience was enthralled by Dudu Miyan’s early accomplishments, and Haji sahib the great requested Dudu Miyan’s assistance in defending him against oppressive landlords.
Ghiyasuddin Haydar and Abdul Gafur alias Naya Miyan, Dudu Miyan’s successors, were both minors when he passed away in 1862, but not before establishing a board of guardians to look after them. The campaign came to an end with the passing of Dadu Mian in 1860. The tenants’ fight against the zamindars was also supported by the Faraizi sect. The Faraizi riots took place between 1838 and 1857. Most Faraizis supported the Wahhabi Movement.
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Faraizi Movement Objectives
The movement was used to spread the word about Haji Shariatullah’s newly discovered understanding of the Islamic faith and its views. Following the British conquest of Indian Territory, the movement saw its most significant transformation. Haji Shariatullah was adamant that Muslim culture, social beliefs, and religious sensibilities had been weakened as a result of the harmful effects of British administration. As a result, the movement intended to drastically alter society so that these fundamental problems might be resolved.
The movement reached a point where it was so unrealistic that it went on to establish an alternate system of government coexisting with British power. This movement was carried out by a small group of army soldiers against British and Indian landowners who oppressed the poor peasants in the Eastern Bengal region.
Throughout this effort, the villagers’ unity against the landlords was expressed. The caliphs’ designation of villages and commissioners gave people the strength to band together and rebel against injustice. As a result of the landlord communities’ hasty reaction to the movement that entirely turned the social economic foundation upside down.
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Faraizi Movement Significance
After some time, the Faraizi movement’s early enthusiasm and Islamic sympathisers’ involvement faded in significance. The campaigns were derided, and in the history books, the movement eventually fused into a religious group. The conflicts between religious goals and the elevation of low-income peasants could not be clarified and resolved for the movement’s goodwill.
Following the passing of his father, Haji Shariatullah’s son Muhsinuddin Ahmad Dudu Miyan assumed control of the movement. Later, the movement was well regarded for its initiatives aiding underprivileged farmers. In essence, around the year 1838, it started to be referred to as an agrarian movement. The lack of an organized mechanism, disagreements among enrolled campaigners, poor political practices and interventions, and other issues were some of the causes of this movement’s demise. Lack of understanding and poor leadership led to a failure in the movement’s efforts to make it seem impossible.
After Dudu Miyan died in 1862, the movement was detracted from its main objective by the influx of money extortion and other deceptive components, and as a result, it was only recorded in historical records as a minor movement.
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Faraizi Movement UPSC
Faraizi Uprising (1838–57) backed the peasant cause against the zamindars and called for radical changes in religion, society, and politics. Renters’ rights were largely protected by the movement, which also had the goal of ousting the British. The tenants’ fight against the zamindars was also supported by the Faraizi sect. The Faraizi riots took place between 1838 and 1857. The Wahhabi movement was embraced by the majority of Faraizis. Details regarding the Faraizi Movement for UPSC Exam Preparation are provided in this article.
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