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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 24 May 2023

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2023

Q) Which one of the following statements is not correct about National Population Register (NPR)?

  1. NPR is a register of the usual residents of the country.
  2. It is mandatory for every usual resident of India to register with NPR.
  3. It also collects the personal data of the residents.
  4. The NPR mechanism is outlined under the Census Act of 1948.

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 23 May April 2023

Explanation:

  • Option (1) and (2) are correct: National Population Register (NPR) is a register of usual residents of the country. It is mandatory for every usual resident of India to register in the NPR. It includes both Indian citizens as well as a foreign citizen. A usual resident is a person who has resided in a local area for the past 6 months or more or a person who intends to reside in that area for the next 6 months or more. The objective of the NPR is to create a comprehensive identity database of every usual resident in the country.
  • Option (3) is correct: NPR is not a citizenship enumeration drive, as it would record even a foreign national staying in a locality for more than six months. The NPR collects the personal data of the residents like the Aadhaar, voter card, passport etc. This is a violation of a citizen’s fundamental right to privacy.
  • Option (4) is incorrect: The data collected under the NPR are shared with States and used by the Central government for various welfare schemes at the individual level. The first National Population Register was prepared in 2010 and updating this data was done during 2015 by conducting door to door survey. The census is legally backed by the Census Act, 1948. The NPR mechanism is outlined under the Citizenship Act, 1955.

Q) Consider the following statements about Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF):

  1. Under GBF, the countries have committed to protecting 30 percent of land and marine areas by 2030.
  2. As per the GBF, member states should reduce the introduction of invasive alien species by at least half by 2050.
  3. By 2050, the member countries should prevent losses made by destruction of landscapes with a lot of species.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) aims to promote comprehension and consciousness of biodiversity concerns. The countries have committed to protecting 30% of land and 30% of coastal and marine areas by 2030. Indigenous and traditional territories will also count toward this goal.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: The member countries will have to cut global food waste in half and significantly reduce over consumption and waste generation. Reduce by half both excess nutrients and the overall risk posed by pesticides and highly hazardous chemicals. Reduce the introduction of invasive alien species at least by half by 2030.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: The deal also aspires to restore 30% of degraded lands and waters throughout the decade, up from an earlier aim of 20%. The countries will strive to prevent destroying intact landscapes and areas with a lot of species, bringing those losses “close to zero by 2030”.

Q) With reference to Smart Cities Mission (SCM), consider the following statements:

  1. SCM is a centrally sector scheme that was launched in 2019.
  2. Special-purpose vehicles are established to approve the release funds for the smart city development projects.
  3. A real-time geographic management information system is used to track the progress of projects under SCM.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is incorrect: Smart Cities Mission was launched on June 25, 2015. It aims to enhance the quality of life for citizens by providing core infrastructure, a clean and sustainable environment, and implementing smart solutions. Mission is operated as a centrally Sponsored Scheme. Its objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment through the application of ‘Smart’ solutions.
  • Statement 2 is correct: For each smart city, a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) has been created to plan, appraise, approve, release funds, implement, manage, operate, monitor and evaluate the Smart City development projects. Smart City Advisory Forum (SCAF) has also been established at the city level to advise and enable collaboration among various stakeholders.
  • Statement 3 is correct: Recently, Central government said that more than 90% of the funds allocated under the Smart Cities Mission (SCM) have been utilised till now, while 73% of the projects have been completed. Secretary of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs chairs the Apex Committee overseeing the Smart Cities Mission, which uses the Real Time Geographical Management Information System (GMIS) to track the progress of projects.

Q) Consider the following statements about Other Backward Classes (OBC):

  1. The OBCs were given a 27 percent reservation on the recommendation of the Mandal Commission under the government headed by Rajiv Gandhi.
  2. As per the Rohini Commission, more than 35 percent of the total OBC population has no representation in educational institutions.
  3. The President is authorized by Article 340 to appoint a committee to investigate the conditions of the backward classes in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is incorrect: Second Backward Classes Commission (1978) was appointed by the Janta Party Government in 1978 under Article 340. This Commission known as Mandal Commission submitted its report in 1982. It identified 3943 castes as OBC and recommended 27% reservation in government and semi-government jobs and admission to educational institutions. In 1990, the Union Government headed by V.P. Singh issued an office memorandum extending 27% reservation to the OBCs on the lines recommended by the Mandal Commission.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Rohini Commission was formed in 2017 to sub-categorise nearly 3,000 OBC caste groups and recommend a quota break-up for them. Preliminary Findings of Rohini Commission are:
  • 97% of all jobs and educational seats have gone to just 25% of all sub-castes classified as OBCs.
  • 95% of these jobs and seats have gone to just 10 OBC communities.
  • 983 OBC communities (37% of the total) have zero representation in jobs and educational institutions.
  • 994 OBC sub-castes have a total representation of only 2.68% in recruitment and admissions.
  • Statement 3 is correct: Article 15 (4) speaks of social and educational backwardness. In Article 16 (4), mention is made of backward classes and their inadequate representation in services. As per the Indian Constitution, they are socially and educationally backward classes. Article 340 gives the President the power to constitute a committee to investigate the conditions of backward classes in India and recommend measures for their welfare, upliftment, and development.

Q) With reference to Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM), consider the following statements:

  1. The CBAM would mandate the purchase of emissions permits for importers of specific products into the European Union.
  2. The CBAM regulates perfluorocarbon greenhouse gas emissions.
  3. It will initially cover indirect emissions from the fertiliser sector.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: EU’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) is a proposed policy that would place a price on the carbon content of certain imported goods. Its primary objective is to avert ‘carbon leakage’, which refers to a phenomenon where an EU manufacturer moves carbon-intensive production to countries outside the region with less stringent climate policiesin order to avoid carbon pricing or other climate regulations. Under the CBAM proposal, importers of certain goods into the EU would be required to purchase emissions allowances at the same cost as EU companies under the EU Emissions
  • Statement 2 is correct but statement 3 is incorrect: Initially, CBAM will cover direct emissions (scope 1) of selected sectors: iron and steel, cement, aluminum, fertilizers, hydrogen and electricity. The greenhouse gas emissions regulated by the CBAM correspond to those emissions covered by Annex I to the EU ETS, namely carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as, where relevant, nitrous oxide (N2O) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs). Indirect emissions (scope 2) will not be covered in the initial phase but can be added after the transitional period.

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