UPSC Prelims News of 7 December 2022
Context: OpenAI company has introduced a new chatbot called ChatGPT.
- ChatGPT is a ‘conversational’ AI and is designed to answer queries just like a human.
- It can also answer “follow-up questions”, and can also admit its mistakes, challenge incorrect information, and reject inappropriate requests.
- ChatGPT is based on the company’s GPT 3.5 series of language learning models (LLM). GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3) is a kind of computer language model that relies on deep learning techniques to produce human-like text based on inputs.
- Working: The Chatbot has been trained using Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF). This allows it to predict what will come next.
- Development: The initial model was trained using human AI trainers. These trainers provided conversations in which the AI Chatbot played both sides—the user and an AI assistant.
- The AI trainers were given access to model-written suggestions to help them compose their responses.
- Applications: The chatbot can compose basic emails, party planning lists, CVs, college essays and also solve math equations. It can also be used to write computer code.
- Drawbacks: The chatbot may generate incorrect information, and create “biased content.” The chatbot has limited knowledge of the world after 2021.
- ChatGPT provides grammatically correct responses but these lack context and substance.
Print and Digital Media Association (PADMA)
Context: Print and Digital Media Association (PADMA) has been approved by the government as a self-regulatory body for publishers of news and current affairs across the country.
- The organisation will have 47 digital news publishers on board and will look at grievances related to digital media news content on their platforms.
- PADMA shall perform functions provided in the sub rules (4) and (5) of rule 12 for the purpose of redressing grievances related to the code of ethics under the rules.
- The body will make sure that the member publishers adhere to the provisions of the rules, including furnishing the requisite information under rule 18.
- Functions under Rule 12 of the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021:
- Oversee and ensure adherence by the publisher to the code of ethics
- Provide guidance to publishers on issues of the code of ethics
- Address grievances that have not been resolved by publishers within 15 days
- Hear appeals filed by the complainant against the decision of publishers
- Issue such guidance or advisories to publishers for ensuring compliance to the code of ethics
Self Regulatory Body:
- It is a non-governmental organisation that establishes rules and standards relating to the conduct of entities in the industry in order to protect the customer and promote ethics, equality, and professionalism.
Context: Paris Club creditor nations are proposing a 10-year moratorium on Sri Lankan debt and another 15 years of debt restructuring.
About Paris Club
- It is a group of officials from 22 countries who find sustainable solutions for challenges faced by debtor countries.
- It has 22 permanent members, including most of the western European and Scandinavian nations, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan.
- The group is organized around the principles that each debtor nation be treated case by case, with consensus, conditionality, solidarity, and comparability of treatment.
About Sri Lanka Debt
- Sri Lanka had defaulted on its 51 billion dollar external debt in the midst of spiralling political and economic crisis.
- Sri Lanka government public debt has gone up from 115.3 per of the GDP in end-2021 to 143.7 per cent of the GDP in end June 2022.
- During 2022, the debt has increased further due to foreign exchange depreciation, deep recession and fiscal deficit with no signs of early revival.
- India Contribution: Sri Lanka owes some USD 800 million in structured debt to India.
- India has provided emergency aid to the tune of four billion dollars to the Island nation.
Jagadish Chandra Bose
Context: The Ministry of Culture has organized an international conference on the contributions of “J C Bose: A Satyagrahi Scientist” on his 164th birth anniversary.
About Jagadish Chandra Bose:
- Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose was a biologist, physicist, botanist and an early writer of science fiction.
- Important contributions:
- He discovered wireless communication and was named the Father of Radio Science by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.
- He pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent.
- Bose is considered the father of Bengali science fiction. A crater on the moon has been named in his honour.
- He also invented the Cresco graph, a device for measuring the growth of plants.
- He founded Bose Institute, a premier research institute of India and also one of its oldest. Established in 1917, the Institute was the first interdisciplinary research centre in Asia.
- Important books: Response in the Living and Non-Living (1902) and The Nervous Mechanism of Plants (1926).