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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 6 October 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

Gubernatorial-procrastination
Gubernatorial-procrastination

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 4 October 2022

  • A Bill passed by the State Assembly becomes law only after it is assented to by the Governor.
  • Article 200 of the Constitution provides certain options for the Governor to exercise when a Bill reaches him from the Assembly. He may give assent or he can send it back to the Assembly requesting it to reconsider some provisions of the Bill, or the Bill itself.
  • In this case, if the Assembly passes the Bill without making any change and sends it back to the Governor, he will have to give assent to it.
  • This provision contained in Article 200 (proviso) unambiguously affirms the primacy of the legislature in the legislative exercise.
  • The third option is to reserve the Bill for the consideration of the President.
  • The provision concerned makes it clear that a Bill can be reserved for the consideration of the President only if the Governor forms an opinion that the Bill would endanger the position of the High Court by whittling away its powers.
  • The Constitution does not mention any other type of Bill which is required to be reserved for the consideration of the President.
  • The fourth option, of course, is to withhold the assent.
  • Article 361 of the Constitution prohibits the court from initiating proceedings against a Governor or the President for any act done in exercise of their powers.
  • It is claimed that since the Constitution does not fix any timeline for the Governor to decide the question of assent, he can wait for any length of time without doing anything.

The Hindu Editorial Today

Clamity Prone
Clamity Prone
  • Similar scenes have played out in Delhi (2013, 2021), Mumbai (2005, 2017), Chennai (2015, 2021), and Hyderabad (2020), leaving behind extensive losses to property and life.
Neutrality
Neutrality
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s telephone call with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy on Tuesday was a significant marker in the continuing war in Ukraine.
  • Over the past seven months, the war and western sanctions have had a dramatic impact on global security, food, fuel and energy supplies, and it is important to keep the lines of communication open, as Mr. Modi has done, with Mr. Putin and Mr. Zelenskyy.
Cough Syrups
Cough Syrups
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) on Wednesday issued a medical product alert over four cough and cold syrups made by Maiden Pharmaceuticals in India, warning they could be linked to acute kidney injuries and deaths of 66 children in the Gambia, a West African nation.
  • “Laboratory analysis of samples of each of the four products confirms that they contain unacceptable amounts of diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol as contaminants,”
  • Diethylene glycol is an anti-freezing agent that causes acute renal failure in the human body followed by paralysis, breathing difficulties and ultimately death.

About Central Drugs Standard Control Organization:

  1. The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) under Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, is the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) of India.
  2. Under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, CDSCO is responsible for approval of Drugs, Conduct of Clinical Trials, laying down the standards for Drugs, control over the quality of imported Drugs in the country.
  3. It also does the coordination of the activities of State Drug Control Organizations by providing expert advice with a view of bring about the uniformity in the enforcement of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act.
  4. Further CDSCO along with state regulators, is jointly responsible for grant of licenses of certain specialized categories of critical Drugs such as blood and blood products, I. V. Fluids, Vaccine and Sera.
  5. Within the CDSCO, the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) regulates pharmaceutical and medical devices, under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  6. The DCGI is advised by the Drug Technical Advisory Board (DTAB) and the Drug Consultative Committee (DCC).
UNHRC
UNHRC
  • A resolution on Sri Lanka will be put to vote likely on Thursday, highlighting the long-pending demands for truth and justice for alleged war crimes from the civil war era and the years after it ended in 2009, apart from other rights violations since.

About UNHRC:

  • The UNHRC replaced the former UN Commission on Human Rights.
  • It was created by the UNGA on March 15, 2006, and the body met in its first session in June, 2006.
  • Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

Composition:

  • The UNHRC has 47 members serving at any time with elections held to fill up seats every year, based on allocations to regions across the world to ensure geographical representation.
  • Each elected member serves for a term of three years.
  • Countries are disallowed from occupying a seat for more than two consecutive terms.

The membership of the Council is based on equitable geographical distribution.

  • African and Asia-Pacific states have 13 seats each,
  • Latin American and Caribbean states have 8 seats,
  • Western European and other states have 7 seats, and
  • Eastern European states have 6 seats.
OPEC PLUS
OPEC PLUS
  • Reacting to the oil cartel OPEC’s (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) decision to cut production, the White House said U.S. President Joe Biden was “disappointed”, calling the decision “shortsighted”.
  • The statement was released shortly after OPEC Plus — a group led by Saudi Arabia (and including Russia and other oil exporters in the ‘Plus’ or expanded version) — announced its decision to cut production by 2 million barrels per day.

Background

  • OPEC Plus was created in 2016 when OPEC countries decided to ally with other oil-producing countries outside the group to cut down the global output of oil.
  • Declaration of Cooperation (DoC): Under the pact, called the Declaration of Cooperation (DoC), the countries have worked together to influence global energy prices.

OPEC Plus

  • It refers to a group of 23 oil-producing countries that includes 13 members of OPEC (Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Algeria, Angola, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Libya, Nigeria, the Republic of the Congo, and Venezuela) and 10 other oil-producing countries (Russia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Brunei, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mexico, Oman, South Sudan and Sudan).
  • Saudi Arabia is the largest oil producer among OPEC members.
  • Russia, which produces more oil than even Saudi Arabia, plays a crucial role, along with OPEC, in influencing global crude oil prices.
  • The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a permanent, intergovernmental organization, created at the Baghdad Conference in 1960, by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela.
  • It aims to manage the supply of oil in an effort to set the price of oil in the world market, in order to avoid fluctuations that might affect the economies of both producing and purchasing countries.
  • It is headquartered in Vienna, Austria.
  • OPEC membership is open to any country that is a substantial exporter of oil and which shares the ideals of the organization.
  • As of 2022, OPEC has a total of 13 Member Countries viz. Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates(UAE), Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Republic of Congo, Angola and Venezuela are members of OPEC.
SC STATUS
SC STATUS

Who all are included in the Constitution Order of 1950?

  • When enacted, the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order of 1950, initially provided for recognising only Hindus as SCs, to address the social disability arising out of the practice of untouchability.
  • The Order was amended in 1956 to include Dalits who had converted to Sikhism and once more in 1990 to include Dalits who had converted to Buddhism.
  • approval of the RGI — a mandate introduced in the rules for inclusion framed in 1999.
  • The 2001 note also stated that Christians and Muslims of Dalit origin had lost their caste identity by way of their conversion and that in their new religious community, the practice of untouchability is not prevalent.
  • Moreover, the RGI opined that since the practice of “untouchability” was a feature of Hindu religion and its branches, allowing the inclusion of Dalit Muslims and Dalit Christians as SCs could result in being “misunderstood internationally” as India trying to “impose its caste system” upon Christians and Muslims.

Q) Indian Home Rule Society (IHRS) was founded by:

  1. Shyamji Krishna Varma
  2. Madan Lal Dhingra
  3. Udham Singh
  4. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar

इंडियन होम रूल सोसाइटी (IHRS) की स्थापना किसके द्वारा की गई थी:

  1. श्यामजी कृष्ण वर्मा
  2. मदन लाल ढींगरा
  3. उधम सिंह
  4. विनायक दामोदर सावरकरी

Explanation :

Prime Minister Narendra Modi pays tribute to Shyamji Krishna Varma on his birth anniversary, October 4.

  • Shyamji Krishna Varma (1857 – 1930) was an Indian freedom fighter, lawyer and journalist.
  • Indian Home Rule Society (IHRS): It was an Indian organisation founded in London in 1905 that sought to promote the cause of self-rule in British India. The organisation was founded by Shyamji Krishna Varma, with support from Bhikaji Cama, Dadabhai Naoroji and S.R. Rana.
  • India House: He founded India House in London. It was a student residence that existed between 1905 and 1910 which was opened to promote nationalist views among Indian students in Britain.
  • Indian Sociologist: He founded Indian Sociologist in London. The monthly Indian Sociologist became an outlet for nationalist ideas.

Q) With reference to the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Gramin), consider the following statements:

  1. It was launched by the Prime Minister in 2016 with the aim of constructing 2.95 crore houses.
  2. Ministry of Panchayati Raj will be implementing Ministry.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

प्रधानमंत्री आवास योजना (ग्रामीण) के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिएः

  1. इसे प्रधानमंत्री द्वारा 2016 में 2.95 करोड़ घरों के निर्माण के उद्देश्य से लॉन्च किया गया था।
  2. पंचायती राज मंत्रालय कार्यान्वयन मंत्रालय करेगा।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

According to the government data, 69% houses under PMAY in rural India are owned by women.

  • Over 69% of houses constructed under the Prime Minister’s special housing scheme are either wholly or jointly owned by women in rural areas.
  • As on September 29, 2022, a total of two crore houses had been constructed out of the 2.46 crore houses that were sanctioned.
  • The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Gramin) was launched by the Prime Minister in 2016 with the aim of constructing 2.95 crore houses.
  • Beneficiaries are identified using parameters from Socio-Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 data and verified by Gram Sabhas.
  • Concerned Ministry: Ministry of Rural Development

Q) Consider the following statement regarding Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI):

  1. It is a non-statutory body.
  2. It comes under ministry of consumer affairs.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

भारतीय खाद्य सुरक्षा और मानक प्राधिकरण (FSSAI) के संबंध में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. यह एक गैर-सांविधिक निकाय है।
  2. यह उपभोक्ता मामलों के मंत्रालय के अंतर्गत आता है।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2
  • Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is an autonomous statutory body established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSS Act).
  • Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India is the administrative Ministry of FSSAI.
  • Headquarters: Delhi.

Q) Shigmo, a harvest festival is mainly celebrated in

  1. Goa
  2. Meghalaya
  3. Maharashtra
  4. Assam

शिग्मो, एक फसल उत्सव मुख्य रूप से मनाया जाता है

  1. गोवा
  2. मेघालय
  3. महाराष्ट्र
  4.  असम
  • Shigmo, or Shigmotsav, is the celebration of a ‘rich, golden harvest of paddy’ by the tribal communities of Goa.

Q) The 97th constitutional amendment act

  1. Gave a constitutional status and protection to cooperative societies
  2. Made the right to form co-operative societies a fundamental right under Article 19
  3. Included a new Directive Principle of State Policy on promotion of co-operative societies

Select the correct answer code:

  1. 1, 2, 3
  2. 1, 3
  3. 1, 2
  4. 2, 3

97वां संविधान संशोधन अधिनियम

  1. सहकारी समितियों को संवैधानिक दर्जा और संरक्षण दिया
  2. सहकारी समितियों के गठन के अधिकार को अनुच्छेद 19 . के तहत मौलिक अधिकार बनाया
  3. सहकारी समितियों को बढ़ावा देने पर राज्य की नीति का एक नया निदेशक सिद्धांत शामिल किया गया

सही उत्तर कोड चुनें:

  1. 1, 2, 3
  2. 1, 3
  3. 1, 2
  4. 2, 3

The 97th Constitutional Amendment Act of 2011 gave a constitutional status and protection to co-operative societies. In this context, it made the following three changes in the constitution:

  1. It made the right to form co-operative societies a fundamental right (Article 19).
  2. It included a new Directive Principle of State Policy on promotion of cooperative societies (Article 43-B2).
  3. It added a new Part IX-B in the Constitution which is entitled “The Cooperative Societies” (Articles 243-ZH to 243-ZT).

Mains Practice Question:

Q) “Access to legal and safe abortion is an integral dimension of sexual and reproductive equality”. Explain (150 words)

“कानूनी और सुरक्षित गर्भपात तक पहुंच यौन और प्रजनन समानता का एक अभिन्न आयाम है”। समझाएं (150 शब्द)

Introduction:

  • According to a 2015 study in the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 10-13% of maternal deaths in India are due to unsafe abortions (the third leading cause of maternal death in our country).

Body:

  • Lack of access to safe abortion clinics, particularly public hospitals, and stigma and attitudes toward women, especially young, unmarried women seeking abortion, contribute to this.

Significance of the MTP Act

Constitutional right:

  • The reproductive choice is personal liberty guaranteed under Article 21 of the Indian constitution.

Reproductive Rights of a Woman:

  • The laws provide greater reproductive rights and dignity to women as abortion is considered an important aspect of the reproductive health of women.

Right to Privacy:

The rape victims and vulnerable victims are also benefitted from Privacy Clause.

  • Deaths and injuries from unsafe abortions are largely preventable provided services are performed legally by trained practitioners.
  • The procedures are performed under proper medical and surgical supervision if done in the hospital setting.
  • Access to legal and safe abortion is an integral dimension of sexual and reproductive equality, a public health issue, and must be seen as a crucial element in the contemporary debates on democracy that seeks to provide the just society that abhors all sort of discrimination.
  • The silence around unsafe abortion leads to deaths of women and hides important problems that lie at the intersection of these concerns, such as the formidable barriers for adolescent girls to access reproductive health services, including abortion services.

Conclusion:

  • The right to safe abortion is an important facet of women’s right to bodily integrity, right to life and equality and needs to be protected.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) Is TN’s breakfast scheme populist or pertinent? Critically Analyse. (150 words)

क्या TN की नाश्ता योजना लोकलुभावन है या प्रासंगिक है? समालोचनात्मक विश्लेषण करें। (150 शब्द)

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 7 October 2022

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