The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC
- The decennial census exercise has been postponed till September, at least, as the government informed the States that the date of freezing of administrative boundaries has been extended till June 30.
- As per norms, census can be conducted only three months after freezing of boundary limits of administrative units such as districts, sub-districts, tehsils, talukas and police stations. The finalisation of boundaries of administrative units entails covering all jurisdictional changes between two consecutive censuses. The last census was held in 2011.
- The general elections are expected to be held in March-April 2024 and the completion of both the phases of census will take at least 11 months, even if done at accelerated pace from October, thereby ruling out the possibility of census happening anytime in 2023 and early 2024. Census before the 2024 general elections is possible if the rules are tweaked and a shorter process is introduced.
- The census provides information on size, distribution and socio-economic, demographic and other characteristics of the country’s population.
- The Census was first started under British Viceroy Lord Mayo in 1872. It helped in framing new policies, government programs to uplift areas of improvement in the community.
- The first synchronous census in India was held in 1881. Since then, censuses have been undertaken uninterruptedly once every ten years.
Who Conducts Census?
- The responsibility of conducting the decennial Census rests with the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India under the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.
- ‘Rig-Veda‘ reveals that some kind of population count was maintained during 800-600 BC in India.
- Arthashastra by ‘Kautilya’ written in the 3rd Century BC prescribed the collection of population statistics as a measure of state policy for taxation.
- During the regime of the Mughal king Akbar, the administrative report ‘Ain-e-Akbari‘ included comprehensive data pertaining to population, industry, wealth and many other characteristics.
- The Kerala High Court has reiterated that no State government employee, worker, or association has the legal right to call for a general strike or instigate the employees to strike, in the guise of the fundamental right of freedom of speech and expression guaranteed by the Constitution.
- No fundamental right to strike
- There is no fundamental right to strike under Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution.
- Under Article 33 of the Constitution, Parliament, by law, can restrict or abrogate the rights of the members of the armed forces or the forces charged with the maintenance of public order.
- Thus, for the armed forces and the police, where discipline is the most important prerequisite, even the fundamental right to form an association can be restricted under Article 19(4) in the interest of public order and other considerations.
- Some of the major accomplishments, although accompanied by shortcomings and controversy, included the peaceful mainstreaming of the Maoist movement into the democratic structure, the integration of guerrillas into the Nepal Army, the transfer of power, the adoption of a Constitution and the emergence of a federal structure.
- There were widespread expectations that Sher Bahadur Deuba, leader of the Nepali Congress, which was in an alliance with Pushpa Kamal Dahal (Prachanda)’s Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) and three other parties, would form the new government as the alliance commanded the largest number of seats in the new Parliament.
- However, it was Prachanda who was sworn in as Prime Minister as he decided to revive his earlier alliance with former Prime Minister K.P. Sharma Oli, who heads the CPN (Unified Marxist–Leninist).
- This unexpected development will undoubtedly be a source of satisfaction for China, which had earlier conspicuously but unsuccessfully attempted to prod the left wing in the political spectrum to reunite (to promote its own interests and to the detriment of India’s interests).
- India can, however, take this development in its stride. It is used to dealing with political instability in Nepal, frequent changes of government, and even reputedly anti-India or pro-China leaders heading them.
- Public opinion in Nepal is now alert to the reality of Chinese intentions, the risks of falling into a debt trap, and the limitations in terms of Chinese capacities in comparison to India’s. China’s image itself has taken a huge beating because of the current COVID-19 tsunami.
- In a recent verdict, the Supreme Court has shown sound restraint while examining the issue of misuse of free speech, especially by political functionaries holding public office. It is to the credit of the Constitution Bench that it did not make any adventurous attempt to expand the scope of the restrictions already spelt out in the Constitution.
- The four judges who signed off on the main opinion, as well as the fifth judge who wrote a separate one, correctly concluded that the specified grounds for reasonable restrictions in Article 19(2) are “exhaustive” and nothing further can be added by judicial fiat.
- Article 19(1)(a): Freedom of speech and expression, provides every citizen with the right to express one’s views, opinions, beliefs, and convictions freely by word of mouth, writing, printing, picturing or in any other manner.
- Article 19(2) confers the right on the State to impose reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the freedom of speech and expression on the grounds of,
- Sovereignty and integrity of India,
- Security of the state,
- Friendly relations with foreign states,
- Public order, decency or morality,
- Contempt of court, defamation, and incitement to an offence.
- The Union Cabinet has cleared a ₹17,490-crore National Green Hydrogen (NGH) mission that aims to facilitate the production of hydrogen from renewable energy.
- Hydrogen is an essential industrial fuel that has a range of uses from producing ammonia, making steel and cement, to powering fuel cells that can run buses and cars.
- However, the cheapest way to manufacture this is to rely on fossil fuel such as coal and natural gas and this produces carbon emissions.
- It costs between $0.9 to $1.5 to produce a kilogramme of hydrogen from coal and anywhere from $3.5 to $5.5 per kg to produce it from renewable energy sources.
- The NGH mission has committed to finance — the details are not yet available — the manufacturing of electrolysers, which use electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen.
- By 2030, the goal is to have at least 5 million metric tonnes of annual green hydrogen production, electrolyser capacity of 60-100 gigawatt and a 125-gigawatt renewable energy capacity for green hydrogen and its associated transmission network.
Expected Mission Outcomes:
- Development of Green Hydrogen Production Capacity of at least 5 MMT (Million Metric Tonne) per annum
- Renewable energy capacity addition of about 125 GW in the country by 2030
- Over 8 lakh crores in total investments
- Creation of over 6 lakh jobs by 2030
- Saving over 1 lakh crore in fossil fuel import
- Reduction in about 50 MMT of annual greenhouse gas emissions by 2030
- Nodal Agency: The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) will formulate the scheme guidelines for implementation.
- With residents of the Joshimath town reporting frequent landslips and hundreds of houses in the hill town in Uttarakhand developing cracks, the district administration has issued orders to stop all construction work.
- The Tapovan Vishnugad hydropower project of the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), work on the Helang bypass of the Border Roads Organisation and the operation of the Auli ropeway, one of Asia’s longest, were stopped.
- With houses in Joshimath developing dangerous cracks, allegedly due to the construction activity, residents are in panic.
- Joshimath, situated at 6,000 feet in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand between Badrinath and Hemkund Sahib, is in seismically active Zone V – a region with a high risk of earthquakes. In anticipation of a sinkage, many individuals have already evacuated the town.
Q) Subject of ‘urban local government’ is dealt with by
- Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs
- Ministry of Defence
- Ministry of Home Affairs
- Ministry of Rural development
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
- Only 1, 2 and 4
- Only 2, 3 and 4
- Only 1,2, and 3
- Only 2 and 4
‘शहरी स्थानीय सरकार’ के विषय से निपटा जाता है
- आवास और शहरी मामलों का मंत्रालय
- रक्षा मंत्रालय
- गृह मंत्रालय
- ग्रामीण विकास मंत्रालय
नीचे दिए गए कूट से सही उत्तर का चयन करें:
- केवल 1, 2 और 4
- केवल 2, 3 और 4
- केवल 1,2, और 3
- केवल 2 और 4
Explanation Subject of ‘urban local government’ is dealt with by the following three ministries: –
- Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs – For States
- Ministry of Defence – For cantonment boards
- Ministry of Home Affairs – For Union Territories
Q) According to the Seventy-Third Amendment Act, 1992:
- Organization of Gram Sabha is a compulsory provision.
- Matters related to disqualifications of members of Panchayat Raj shall be referred to Governor of a State.
- 21 years to be the minimum age for contesting elections to the Panchayat.
Which of the above statement[s] is/are correct?
- Only 1 and 3
- Only 2 and 3
- All of the above
- None of the above
तिहत्तरवें संशोधन अधिनियम, 1992 के अनुसार:
- ग्राम सभा का आयोजन एक अनिवार्य प्रावधान है।
- पंचायत राज के सदस्यों की अयोग्यता से संबंधित मामले राज्य के राज्यपाल को भेजे जाएंगे।
- पंचायत का चुनाव लड़ने के लिए न्यूनतम आयु 21 वर्ष होना।
उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?
- केवल 1 और 3
- केवल 2 और 3
- उपरोक्त सभी
- उपर्युक्त में से कोई नहीं
- Explanations: Disqualifications – A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as or for being a member of panchayat if he is so disqualified, (a) under any law for the time being in force for the purpose of elections to the legislature of the state concerned, or (b) under any law made by the state legislature.
- However, no person shall be disqualified on the ground that he is less than 25 years of age if he has attained the age of 21 years.
- Further, all questions of disqualifications shall be referred to such authority as the state legislature determines. As per Compulsory provision Organization of Gram Sabha is a compulsory provision
Q) The establishment of the Inter-State Councils can be best explained as an exercise in
- Administrative delegation
- Direct democracy
- Cooperative Federalism
- Democratic decentralization
अंतर-राज्यीय परिषदों की स्थापना को एक कवायद के रूप में सबसे अच्छी तरह से समझाया जा सकता है
- प्रशासनिक प्रतिनिधिमंडल
- प्रत्यक्ष लोकतंत्र
- सहकारी संघवाद
- लोकतांत्रिक विकेंद्रीकरण
Explanation: Article 263 contemplates the establishment of an Inter-State Council to effect coordination between the states and between Centre and states i.e., to promote cooperative federalism. It was set up in 1990.
Q) Kalasa Banduri Nala project is on which of the following river?
कलसा बंदूरी नाला परियोजना निम्नलिखित में से किस नदी पर है?
On December 30, 2022, Karnataka Chief Minister Basavaraj Bommai told the Legislative Assembly that the government had received clearance from the Centre for two Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) on the Kalasa-Banduri Nala on the Mahadayi. It has escalated its long-standing dispute on the issue with neighbouring Goa.
- The Kalasa Banduri Nala project aims to divert water from Mahadayi to satisfy the drinking water needs of Belagavi, Dharwad, Bagalkot and Gadag districts.
- Though the project was first proposed in the early 1980s, it has remained on paper owing to a dispute between Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra.
- As per plans, barrages are to be built against Kalasa and Banduri streams — tributaries of Mahadayi — and water diverted towards Karnataka’s parched districts.
- Mahadayi originates inside the Bhimgad Wildlife Sanctuary in the Belagavi district of Karnataka and flows into the Arabian Sea in Goa.
Q) With reference to the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, consider the following statements:
- It was established in 1994.
- It is a statutory body.
Which of the above statements is/are Incorrect?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
राष्ट्रीय अनुसूचित जनजाति आयोग के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:
- इसकी स्थापना 1994 में हुई थी।
- यह एक सांविधिक निकाय है।
उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन गलत है/हैं?
- केवल 1
- केवल 2
- 1 और 2 दोनों
- न तो 1 और न ही 2
National Commission for Scheduled Tribes recently said that Forest (Conservation) Rules (FCR) 2022 will invariably violate the Forest Rights Act, 2006.
- Established in: 2004.
- It was established by amending Article 338 and inserting a new Article 338A in the Constitution through the Constitution (89th Amendment) Act, 2003.
- By this amendment, the erstwhile National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was replaced by two separate Commissions namely-
- the National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC), and
- the NCST w.e.f. 19 February, 2004.
What is the composition of the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes?
- The term of office of Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and each member is three years from the date of assumption of charge.
- The Chairperson has been given the rank of Union Cabinet Minister, and the Vice-Chairperson that of a Minister of State and other Members have the ranks of a Secretary to the Government of India.
Mains Practice Question:
Q) It is often said that constitution is a living document. What do you understand by it ? (150 words)
प्राय: कहा जाता है कि संविधान एक जीवित दस्तावेज है। इससे आप क्या समझते हैं ? (150 शब्द)
- Constitutions could be rigid like that of America or flexible like that of the UK based on Amendability. India’s Constitution is a synthesis of both, adapting best features from prominent constitution while engraved them upon ideals that were formed during nationalistic freedom struggle.
Rigidity/Procedural Norms in Indian Constitution
- Basic Structure of the Constitution like Parliamentary system, Judicial Independence, Fundamental Rights cannot be amended. This doctrine was propounded by the Supreme Court in Kesavananda Bharati case.
- Certain features that have effect on federal characteristics require amendment by special majority along with state’s concurrence under article 368.
- Being lengthiest written, it has detailed polity and administrative principles, which need to be followed by the legislature, judiciary, and executive. Defiance of which could result in unconstitutional acts like prescribed age for elections, trying to subvert judicial independence leading to terming non-constitution even a majority backed law like NJAC.
Flexibility in Indian Constitution
- Most parts of the Indian Constitution can be amended without concurrence of states or just by a simple majority in Parliament under article 368, to be able to reflect on changing society like considering the right to privacy or right to choose one’s life partner as a fundamental right under the right to life (Article 21).
- It allows for differing interpretations as per changed socio-economic circumstances like ensuring that women are not discriminated against while practicing their right to worship, as observed in the Sabarimala case.
- It allows for the evolution of legal and constitutional measures like the evolution of creamy layer in the reservation system.
- Thus, such a balance makes Indian Constitution a living document that responds to changing time along with making it durable to protect the basic tenet of democracy, ideals on which the country was formed like those enshrined in the Preamble.
Mains Practice Question:
Q) “After decades of the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments, local governments still remain constrained and inefficient.” Discuss. (150 words)
“73वें और 74वें संवैधानिक संशोधनों के दशकों के बाद, स्थानीय सरकारें अभी भी विवश और अक्षम हैं।” विचार-विमर्श करना। (150 शब्द)