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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 4 October 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

Swedish scientist Svante Paabo won the Nobel Prize in medicine
Swedish scientist Svante Paabo won the Nobel Prize in medicine

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 3 October 2022

  • Swedish scientist Svante Paabo won the Nobel Prize in medicine on Monday for his discoveries on human evolution that provided key insights into our immune system and what makes us unique compared with our extinct cousins, the award’s panel said.

Nobel Prize- overview:

  • Alfred Nobel,a Swedish chemist, engineer, industrialist, and the inventor of dynamite, in his last will and testament in 1895, gave the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology/Medicine, Literature, and Peace, to be called the “Nobel Prizes”.
  • In 1968the sixth award, the Prize in Economic Sciences was started.
  • The Nobel Prize consists of a Nobel Medal and Diploma, and a document confirming the prize amount.
  • Between 1901 and 2018, the Prizes have been awarded 590 times, the recipients during this period being 908 Laureates and 27 organisations.
  • The following Indians (or individuals of Indian origin) have been honoured with the Nobel: 
  • Rabindranath Tagore (Literature, 1913), C V Raman (Physics, 1930), Hargobind Khorana (Medicine, 1968), Mother Teresa (Peace, 1979), Subramanian Chandrashekhar (Physics, 1983), the Dalai Lama (Peace, 1989), Amartya Sen (Economics, 1998), Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (2009), and Kailash Satyarthi (Peace, 2014).
OTT platforms and private TV channels
OTT platforms and private TV channels
  • The Information and Broadcasting Ministry on Monday advised news websites, OTT platforms and private TV channels to refrain from publishing or broadcasting advertisements of online betting platforms or any surrogate product depicting them.
  • Surrogate advertising is a form of advertising which is used to promote regulated products, like cigarettes and alcohol, in the disguise of another product.
Armed Forces (Special) Powers Act (AFSPA)
Armed Forces (Special) Powers Act (AFSPA)
  • The uncertainty around the culmination of the Naga peace process is one of the reasons that led to the Armed Forces (Special) Powers Act (AFSPA) being retained in some parts of Assam, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh for another six months, according to government officials.
  • Background:
    • The British colonial government had on 15thAugust, 1942, promulgated the Armed Forces Special Powers Ordinance to suppress the Quit India movement.
    • It was the foundation for four ordinances, including one for the “Assam disturbed areas” invoked in 1947 to deal with Partition-induced internal security challenges.
    • The Armed Forces (Assam and Manipur) Special Powers Act, 1958, followed the Assam Disturbed Areas Act of 1955 to deal with the uprising in the Naga Hills and adjoining areas.
    • The Act was replaced by the AFSPA for wider application. A similar Act specific to Jammu and Kashmir was enacted in 1990.
  • AFSPA gives sweeping powers to the armed forces.
    • For example, it allows them to open fire, even causing death, against any person in contravention to the law or carrying arms and ammunition.
    • Also, it gives them powers to arrest individuals without warrants, on the basis of “reasonable suspicion”, and search premises without warrants.
  • It can be imposed by the Centre or the Governor of a state, on the state or parts of it, after these areas are declared “disturbed’’ under Section 3.
    • The Act was amended in 1972 and the powers to declare an area as “disturbed” were conferred concurrently upon the Central government along with the States.
    • Currently, the Union Home Ministry issues periodic “disturbed area” notification to extend AFSPA only for Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh.
    • The notification for Manipur and Assam is issued by the State governments.
    • Tripura revoked the Act in 2015 and Meghalaya was under AFSPA for 27 years, until it was revoked by the MHA from 1stApril 2018.
rupee is under pressure
rupee is under pressure
  • Even without getting into any quantitative measure of vulnerability, it is quite clear that the rupee is under pressure. In the last one year, it depreciated by over 10%, has crossed the psychological marker of ₹80 to a dollar, and India’s foreign exchange reserves are down by more than $100 billion.
  • The rupee is falling on account of two factors. The first is the widening current account deficit, mainly owing to the rise in the price of oil triggered by the Ukraine war. And the second is capital outflows, driven by a strengthening dollar on the back of aggressive rate hikes by the U.S. Federal Reserve.
  • We live in a difficult world where macroeconomic management is hostage to global economic conditions. Former U.S. Treasury Secretary John B. Connally famously told his G-10 counterparts in 1971 that “the dollar is our currency, but it’s your problem”. That is even truer today because of deepened financial globalisation and the continuing hegemony of the dollar.
BALANCE OF PAYMENT
BALANCE OF PAYMENT
married pregnant woman
married pregnant woman
  • The day of the judgment started with bits and pieces of information coming in about the Supreme Court judgment on access for termination of pregnancy services for women up to 24 weeks irrespective of their marital status.
  • This means that any termination of pregnancy that does not fall within the realm of the MTP Act is an offence under the IPC.
  • Second, the judgment holds unconstitutional the distinction that the law, through the rules, has made between a married pregnant woman and an unmarried pregnant woman.
  • This judgment clarifies that while the need to report mandatorily remains, the identity of the pregnant person need not be disclosed in the cases of consensual sexual activity and where the minor and/or her guardian request the medical service provider to maintain confidentiality.
every rural household by 2024.
every rural household by 2024.
  • One of the most significant commitments of the Narendra Modi government is to ensure piped water to every rural household by 2024.
  • Under the Jal Jeevan Mission, led by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, 10.2 crore rural households, or about 53% of the eligible population, now have tap water access.
  • This, the Government claims, is a 37-percentage point rise from 2019 when the scheme was announced, where its stated aim is to ensure at least 55 litres per person per day of potable water to every rural household — which implies a mere connection does not suffice.
Global Food Security Index
Global Food Security Index
  • The States have a responsibility to promote welfare and minimise inequalities in income as well as in facilities and opportunities among individuals and groups (Article 38).
  • The welfare responsibility of the States remains undiminished, especially since India is ranked 71 out of 113 countries on the Global Food Security Index, 101 out of 116 countries on the Global Hunger Index, and 132 out of 191 countries on the Human Development Index.
Light Combat Helicopter (LCH)
Light Combat Helicopter (LCH)
  • Induction of the indigenously designed and developed Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) adds unique capability to the combat potential of the Indian Air Force (IAF) and marks a new chapter, said Air Chief Marshal (ACM) V. R. Chaudhari on Monday as the twin-engine helicopter was formally inducted into the 143 Helicopter Unit ‘Dhanush’ at the Jodhpur Air Force Station.
  • The twin-engine LCH, designed and developed by HAL, is a 5-8 tonne class dedicated combat helicopter. It was conceptualised after the 1999 Kargil conflict when the need for such a dedicated platform capable of operating in high altitudes was felt.
  • It is the only attack helicopter in the world which can land and take-off at an altitude of 5,000 m (16,400 ft) with considerable load of weapons and fuel significantly augmenting the firepower of the IAF and the Army in high altitude areas.
  • The helicopter has a combat radius of 500 km and go up to a service ceiling of 21,000 feet which makes it ideal to operate at high altitude areas of the Siachen glacier.
SASTRA
SASTRA
  • The SASTRA Ramanujan Prize for 2022 will be awarded to Yunqing Tang, Assistant Professor with the University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A.
  • The award, instituted by the Shanmugha Arts, Science, Technology & Research Academy (SASTRA) in 2005 with a cash prize of $10,000, is presented annually to individuals aged 32 and below, who made outstanding contributions in the field of mathematics, influenced by Srinivasa Ramanjuan in a broad sense.
rime Minister’s special housing scheme
rime Minister’s special housing scheme
  • Over 69% of houses constructed under the Prime Minister’s special housing scheme are either wholly or jointly owned by women in rural areas.
  • According to the data shared by the government, as on September 29, 2022, a total of two crore houses had been constructed out of the 2.46 crore houses that were sanctioned.
  • Of this, 69% are owned partly or completely by women.

PMAY- G:

  • Ministry: Ministry of Rural Development.
  • The erstwhile rural housing scheme Indira Awaas yojana (IAY) has been restructured into Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana –Gramin (PMAY-G) from 01.04.2016.
  • PMAY-G aims at providing a pucca house, with basic amenities, to all houseless householder and those households living in kutcha and dilapidated house, by 2024.
  • Target: Construction of 2.95 crore houses with all basic amenities by the year 2024.

PM Ujjwala Scheme

  • It is a scheme of the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas for providing LPG connections to women from Below Poverty Line (BPL) households.
  • The scheme was originally launched on May 1, 2016, in Ballia, Uttar Pradesh by the Prime Minister of India with a target of releasing 8 crore connections by March 2020.
  • During Ujjwala 1.0, a target was set to provide LPG connections to 5 crore women members of BPL households.
  • Subsequently, the scheme was expanded in April 2018 to include women beneficiaries from seven more categories (SC/ST, PMAY, AAY, Most backward classes, tea garden, forest dwellers, Islands).
  • Also, the target was revised to 8 Crore LPG connections.
    • So far over 9 crores, of connections under Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana have been released.
  • This target was achieved in August 2019, seven months ahead of the target date.
  • The PMUY 2.0 was launched in the financial year 2021-22 making a provision for the release of additional one crore connections.
MGNREGS
MGNREGS
  • According to the Desertification and Land Degradation Atlas published by the Environment Ministry in 2021, at least 30% of India’s total geographical area is under the category of “degraded land”.
  • In 2019, the government raised its target of restoration of degraded land from 21 million hectares to 26 million hectares by 2030 following a commitment made during the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (COP14).
  • Global Efforts:
    • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD): It was established in 1994, the sole legally binding international agreement linking environment and development to sustainable land management.
      • The Delhi Declaration of 2019, signed by 14th CoP of the UNCCD, called for better access and stewardship over land, and emphasised gender-sensitive transformative projects.
    • The Bonn Challenge: To bring 150 million hectares of the world’s deforested and degraded land into restoration by 2020, and 350 million hectares by 2030.
    • Great Green Wall: Initiative by Global Environment Facility (GEF), where eleven countries in Sahel-Saharan Africa have focused efforts to fight against land degradation and revive native plant life to the landscape.

Q Consider the following statements regarding the membership change in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC).

  1. Changing the membership of the Council requires amending the UN Charter.
  2. It involves consent of two-thirds of the total membership of the UN, including the concurring votes of permanent members of the UN Security Council.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

संयुक्त राष्ट्र सुरक्षा परिषद (यूएनएससी) में सदस्यता परिवर्तन के संबंध में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें।

  1. परिषद की सदस्यता बदलने के लिए संयुक्त राष्ट्र चार्टर में संशोधन की आवश्यकता है।
  2. इसमें संयुक्त राष्ट्र सुरक्षा परिषद के स्थायी सदस्यों के मतों सहित संयुक्त राष्ट्र की कुल सदस्यता के दो-तिहाई की सहमति शामिल है।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

How will membership change?

  • Amendment: Changing the membership of the Council requires amending the Charter.
  • Two-third of total membership: It involves consent of two-thirds of the total membership of the UN, including the concurring votes of P-5.
  • Veto power: Each of the five has a veto.
  • Non-permanent seats: The Charter was amended once in the 1960s to enlarge the Council by additional non-permanent seats.

Q Consider the following pairs:

  1. Orang National Park: Arunachal Pradesh
  2. Pilibhit National Park: Uttar Pradesh
  3. Dudhwa National Park: Bihar

Which of the given above pairs is/are correctly matched?

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. Only one pair
  2. Only two pairs
  3. Only three pairs
  4. All four pairs

निम्नलिखित जोड़े पर विचार करें:

  1. ओरंग राष्ट्रीय उद्यान: अरुणाचल प्रदेश
  2. पीलीभीत राष्ट्रीय उद्यान: उत्तर प्रदेश
  3. दुधवा राष्ट्रीय उद्यान: बिहार

ऊपर दिए गए युग्मों में से कौन-सा/से सही सुमेलित है/हैं?

ऊपर दिए गए कितने जोड़े सही सुमेलित हैं?

  1. केवल एक जोड़ी
  2. केवल दो जोड़े
  3. केवल तीन जोड़े
  4. सभी चार जोड़े

Explanation:

  • Manas, Kaziranga and Orang in Assam.
  • Satpura, Kanha and Panna in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Pench in Maharashtra.
  • Valmiki Tiger Reserve in Bihar.
  • Dudhwa and Pilibhit National Park in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Sunderbans in West Bengal.
  • Parambikulam in Kerala.
  • Bandipur Tiger Reserve of Karnataka.
  • Mudumalai and Anamalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu.

Q A closed economy is likely to have which of the following characteristics?

  1. Fiscal deficit would be zero.
  2. The government does not have a right to print currency.
  3. The central bank does not control money supply.
  4. Balance of Payments is zero.

एक बंद अर्थव्यवस्था में निम्नलिखित में से कौन सी विशेषता होने की संभावना है?

  1. राजकोषीय घाटा शून्य होगा।
  2. सरकार को करेंसी प्रिंट करने का अधिकार नहीं है।
  3. केंद्रीय बैंक मुद्रा आपूर्ति को नियंत्रित नहीं करता है।
  4. भुगतान संतुलन शून्य है।
  • A closed economy is self-sufficient, meaning that no imports are brought in and no exports are sent out. The goal is to provide consumers with everything that they need from within the economy’s borders. A closed economy is the opposite of an open economy, in which a country will conduct trade with outside regions.
  • So, if no capital or goods/services are imported, exported, the BoP will be zero.
  • In this case, the fiscal deficit need not be zero since a developing country may adopt expansionary fiscal policy to tackle poverty and unemployment.

Q Which one of the following amendments empowered the president to send back the advice of cabinet for reconsideration?

  1. 39th Amendment
  2. 40th Amendment
  3. 42nd Amendment
  4. 44th Amendment

निम्नलिखित में से किस संशोधन ने राष्ट्रपति को कैबिनेट की सलाह को पुनर्विचार के लिए वापस भेजने का अधिकार दिया?

  1. 39वां संशोधन
  2. 40वां संशोधन
  3. 42वां संशोधन
  4. 44वां संशोधन
  •  Forty-Fourth Amendment Act, 1978 empowered the president to send back once the advice of cabinet for reconsideration. But, the reconsidered advice is to be binding on the president.

Q With reference to the YUVA (Young, Upcoming and Versatile Authors) 2.0 scheme, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a Prime Minister’s scheme for mentoring young authors, and a programme to train young and budding authors below the age of 30 to promote reading, writing, and book culture in the country, and project India and Indian writings globally.
  2. The NITI Aayog is the implementing agency.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

युवा (युवा, आगामी और बहुमुखी लेखक) 2.0 योजना के संदर्भ में, निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. यह युवा लेखकों को सलाह देने के लिए एक प्रधान मंत्री की योजना है, और देश में पढ़ने, लिखने और पुस्तक संस्कृति को बढ़ावा देने और भारत और भारतीय लेखन को विश्व स्तर पर प्रोजेक्ट करने के लिए 30 वर्ष से कम उम्र के युवा और उभरते लेखकों को प्रशिक्षित करने का एक कार्यक्रम है।
  2. नीति आयोग कार्यान्वयन एजेंसी है।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation :

Prime Minister’s Scheme for Mentoring Young Authors – YUVA 2.0 was launched recently.

  • It is a Prime Minister’s scheme for mentoring young authors, and a programme to train young and budding authors below the age of 30 to promote reading, writing, and book culture in the country, and project India and Indian writings globally.
  • The ministry of education (MoE) launched the YUVA 2.0 scheme in view of the significant impact of the first edition of the YUVA.
  • The first edition witnessed a large-scale participation from young authors in 22 different Indian languages including English.
  • It is in tune with the Prime Minister’s vision to encourage the youth to understand and appreciate India’s democracy.
  • It will help to develop a stream of writers who can write on a spectrum of subjects to promote the Indian heritage, culture, and knowledge system.
  • The National Book Trust, India, as the implementing agency under MoE will ensure the phase-wise execution of the scheme under well-defined stages of mentorship.
  • The young authors will be trained by eminent authors and mentors from 1st March to 31st August 2023.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) ‘Nonalignment of the past’ had not succeeded, and a way had to be found for “multiple engagements of the future”. Critically Analyze (150 words)

‘अतीत का गुटनिरपेक्षता’ सफल नहीं हुआ था, और “भविष्य की कई व्यस्तताओं” के लिए एक रास्ता खोजना पड़ा। समालोचनात्मक विश्लेषण (150 शब्द)

Introduction: 

  • In his book The India Way, External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar offers a critique of India’s traditional policy of “non-alignment” where he distinguishes between the “optimistic non-alignment” of the past, which he feels has failed, that must give way to more realistic “multiple engagements of the future”.

Body: 

  • The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an organization of States that did not formally align with the US or USSR and sought to remain independent.
  • Created in 1961, NAM has sought to “create an independent path in world politics that would not result in member States becoming pawns in the struggles between the major powers.”
  • The NAM has shown a tendency to ignore some of the human rights violations committed by member countries.
  • NAM could not stop the arms race and bring an end to Nuclear Proliferation.
  • NAM could not stop the arms race and bring an end to Nuclear Proliferation.
  • To begin with, the visit reinforces his commitment to an Indian foreign policy that balances various blocs — pitting India’s membership of the SCO and BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) against its membership of the Quad (Australia, India, Japan, the U.S.), groups such as the I2U2 ( India-Israel-U.S.-UAE), and the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF).
  • Another juxtaposition is that of values over interests, or that of the western brand of a “coalition of democracies”, against a more Eurasian brand of a “coalition of common goals”.
  • India needs investments, technology, a manufacturing ecosystem to employ millions of its young population and improve its living standards.
  • It requires advanced weapons and technologies for its military. India is ambitious and wants to be a great power and the US and the Western world recognise this and are willing to partner India.

 Conclusion:

  • Though sections of the Indian establishment still want to reinvent non-alignment under ever new guises, India is showing signs of pursuing strategic autonomy separately from non-alignment.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) “Access to legal and safe abortion is an integral dimension of sexual and reproductive equality”. Explain (150 words)

“कानूनी और सुरक्षित गर्भपात तक पहुंच यौन और प्रजनन समानता का एक अभिन्न आयाम है”। समझाएं (150 शब्द)

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 6 October 2022

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