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The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 20 October 2022

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC

china blocks 2 proposal on pak
china blocks 2 proposal on pak

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 19 October 2022

  • China once again blocked proposals by India and the U.S. to designate Pakistan-based terrorists on the UN Security Council’s 1267 list of terror entities.
  • The listings for Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) founder Hafiz Saeed’s son Talha Saeed and Shahid Mehmood, deputy chief of a front for the LeT named the Falah I Insaniyat Foundation (FIF), were made by New Delhi and Washington jointly.
  • China’s block also comes as the Financial Action Task Force plenary began in Paris, which is likely to remove Pakistan from its grey list, where it has been under scrutiny since 2018 for failing to counter terror financing.
  • UNSC:About:
    • The Security Council was established by the UN Charter in 1945. It is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
      • The other 5 organs of the United Nations are—the General Assembly (UNGA), the Trusteeship Council, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice, and the Secretariat.
    • Its primary responsibility is to work to maintain international peace and security.
    • The council is headquartered at NewYork.
  • The council has 15 members: the five permanent members and ten non-permanent members elected for two-year terms.
    • The five permanent members are the United States, the Russian Federation, France, China and the United Kingdom.
    • India, for the eighth time, has entered the UNSC as a non-permanent member last year (2021) and will stay on the council for two years i.e 2021-22.
  • Each year, the General Assembly elects five non-permanent members (out of ten in total) for a two-year term. The ten non-permanent seats are distributed on a regional basis.
  • The council’s presidency is a capacity that rotates every month among its 15 members.

The Hindu Editorial Today

lease of life
lease of life
  • The United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Report has warned that global human development measures have declined across most countries in the past two years.
  • This comes against the backdrop of the greatest existential threat of all — the triple planetary crisis of climate change, pollution and biodiversity loss.
  • Nine of the warmest years on record have come in the past decade alone. This year’s record-breaking heat waves, floods, droughts, and other extreme forms of weather have forced us to face these increasingly devastating impacts.
  • The Paris Agreement and the COP26 summit in Glasgow represent urgent, collective steps countries are taking to limit emissions. Yet, the window for action is closing fast. Commitments we have now will not keep warming below the 1.5°C target that gives us the best chance of averting catastrophe.
  • LIFE, or Lifestyle for Environment, announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi at COP26 in November 2021, brings a fresh and much-needed perspective.
  • Rather than framing climate change as a ‘larger than life’ challenge, LIFE recognises that small individual actions can tip the balance in the planet’s favour.
  • Mindful choices cultivated by LIFE animate this spirit — actions such as saving energy at home; cycling and using public transport instead of driving; eating more plant-based foods and wasting less; and leveraging our position as customers and employees to demand climate-friendly choices.
CJI
CJI
  • Justice Chandrachud will serve as the CJI for two years and two days until his retirement on November 10, 2024. His is expected to be the 14th longest tenure among the tenures of the 50 CJIs analysed.
  • At the age of 62 years, 11 months and 29 days, Justice D.Y. Chandrachud will also be the youngest CJI of the last 10 years.
  • Interestingly, Justice D.Y. Chandrachud’s father, Justice Y.V. Chandrachud, holds the record for serving the longest term as the CJI. Justice Y.V. Chandrachud was appointed on February 22, 1978 and retired on July 11, 1985, which means he served in the top post for seven years, four months and 19 days.
HATE SPEECH
HATE SPEECH
  • Making a strong pitch for the protection of human rights and pluralism in India, UN Secretary-General António Guterres on Wednesday urged Indians to condemn hate speech.
  • Guterres praised India’s non-violent struggle for Independence from colonial rule. He said the upcoming Presidency of India at the G-20 will provide an opportunity for highlighting the “values and vision of the developing world”.
swadesh darshan
swadesh darshan
  • Prayagraj, Chitrakoot, and Gwalior are among the cities identified in 15 States across the country to be promoted as part of India’s new domestic tourism policy which moves away from theme-based tourist circuits and focuses on revving up destination tourism.
  • The Swadesh Darshan Scheme was launched by the Centre in 2014-15 for the integrated development of theme-based tourist circuits.
  • Under the scheme, the Ministry of Tourism provides financial assistance to State governments, Union Territory Administrations or Central Agencies for development of tourism infrastructure in the country.
critically vultures
critically vultures
  • Alarmed at the 96% decline in India’s vulture population between 1993 and 2003, the Central government put into place two action plans to protect the species at the national level — the first in 2006 and the second, ongoing plan for 2020-2025.
  • In Tamil Nadu, four species of vultures are found — the Oriental white-backed vulture, the long-billed vulture, the red-headed vulture, and the Egyptian vulture.
  • Vultures play a key role as nature’s scavengers, keeping the environment clean. Their social and ecological significance cannot be underestimated.
vulture
vulture
vulture
vulture
pressure on rupee
pressure on rupee
  • Higher than expected interest rate increases in the U.S. could put further downward pressure on the rupee and increase imported inflation in India, but there is a limited risk to the country’s sovereign rating from external pressures, Fitch Ratings said on Wednesday.
trade surpasses
trade surpasses
  • The favourable trade balance that China has enjoyed with India, since bilateral commerce began to boom in the early 2000s, has cumulatively exceeded $1 trillion, according to estimates.
  • The trade gap has particularly widened in the past decade. In 2021, annual two-way trade crossed $100 billion for the first time, reaching $125.6 billion, with India’s imports accounting for $97.5 billion, pegging the imbalance at about $70 billion.
  • “These surpluses are consistent, and not addressed over a period of time, this leads to the problem of a current account deficit for India,” he said.

Q) India’s growth’s story from the eve of Independence to the liberalization phase is largely termed as ‘Hindu rate of growth’. What it refers to?

  1. Non inclusive growth story of India before 1990’s liberalization.
  2. Religious belief of the successive government right from the independence.
  3. Irrational developmental agenda driven by majoritarian society.
  4. The phenomenon of sluggishness in growth rate of Indian economy before 1990’s.

स्वतंत्रता की पूर्व संध्या से उदारीकरण के चरण तक भारत के विकास की कहानी को मोटे तौर पर ‘विकास की हिंदू दर’ कहा जाता है। यह क्या संदर्भित करता है?

  1. 1990 के उदारीकरण से पहले भारत की गैर-समावेशी विकास कहानी।
  2. स्वतंत्रता से ही उत्तरवर्ती सरकार का धार्मिक विश्वास।
  3. बहुसंख्यक समाज द्वारा संचालित तर्कहीन विकासात्मक एजेंडा।
  4. 1990 के दशक से पहले भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था की विकास दर में सुस्ती की घटना।

Solution: d)

  • ‘Hindu’ rate of growth was coined to refer to the phenomenon of sluggishness in growth rate of Indian economy (3.5 per cent observed persistently during 1950s through 1980s).

Q) Consider the following statements regarding the World food prize:

  1. It was started by Norman Borlaugh for saving millions of lives through scientific research.
  2. It was established in 1986 and currently, it is presented by the World Food Prize Foundation.
  3. It is given every year on October 16 in a special ceremony in Des Moines, Iowa.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

विश्व खाद्य पुरस्कार के संबंध में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. इसे वैज्ञानिक अनुसंधान के माध्यम से लाखों लोगों की जान बचाने के लिए नॉर्मन बोरलॉ द्वारा शुरू किया गया था।
  2. यह 1986 में स्थापित किया गया था और वर्तमान में, यह विश्व खाद्य पुरस्कार फाउंडेशन द्वारा प्रस्तुत किया जाता है।
  3. यह हर साल 16 अक्टूबर को डेस मोइनेस, आयोवा में एक विशेष समारोह में दिया जाता है।

ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?

  1.  केवल 1 और 2
  2.  केवल 2 और 3
  3.  केवल 1 और 3
  4.  1, 2 और 3

Explanation:

  • it was started by Norman Borlaugh (Noble prize for peace in 1970) for saving millions of lives through scientific research.
  • It was established in 1986 and currently, It is presented by the World Food Prize Foundation which has over 80 companies, individuals, etc. as donors.
  • Indians including M S Swaminathan, Verghese Kurien, Gurdev Khush and Rattan Lal have been recipients of the prize.
  • It is given every year on October 16 in a special ceremony in Des Moines, Iowa.

Q) Consider the following statements about the National Commission for Scheduled Caste:

  1. It is a constitutional body: works to safeguard the interests of the scheduled castes (SC) in India.
  2. Article 338A of the Indian constitution deals with National Commission for Scheduled Castes.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

राष्ट्रीय अनुसूचित जाति आयोग के बारे में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. यह एक संवैधानिक निकाय है: भारत में अनुसूचित जातियों (एससी) के हितों की रक्षा के लिए काम करता है।
  2. भारतीय संविधान का अनुच्छेद 338A राष्ट्रीय अनुसूचित जाति आयोग से संबंधित है।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation:

  • The National Commission for Scheduled Castes is an Indian constitutional body under the jurisdiction of Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India established with a view to provide safeguards against the exploitation of Scheduled Castes and Anglo Indian communities to promote and protect their social, educational, economic and cultural interests, special provisions were made in the Constitution.
  • Article 338 of the Indian constitution deals with National Commission for Scheduled Castes. Article 338 A deals with National Commission for Scheduled tribes.

Q) Consider the following statements:

  1. The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 19 countries and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  2. G7 members suspended Russia’s membership of the G-7 group, due to Russia’s annexation of Crimea.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:

  1. G20 (या ग्रुप ऑफ ट्वेंटी) 19 देशों की सरकारों और केंद्रीय बैंक के गवर्नरों और इस्लामिक सहयोग संगठन (OIC) के लिए एक अंतरराष्ट्रीय मंच है।
  2. रूस द्वारा क्रीमिया पर कब्ज़ा करने के कारण G7 सदस्यों ने G-7 समूह की रूस की सदस्यता को निलंबित कर दिया।

उपरोक्त में से कौन सा/से कथन सही है/हैं?

  1. केवल 1
  2. केवल 2
  3. दोनों 1 और 2
  4. न तो 1 और न ही 2

Explanation:

  • Stat2: On 24 March, 2014, the G7 members cancelled the planned G8 summit that was to be held in June of that year in the Russian city of Sochi, and suspended Russia’s membership of the group, due to Russia’s annexation of Crimea; nevertheless, they stopped short of outright permanent expulsion.
  • Stat1: The G20 is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 19 countries and the European Union.

Q) Recently, which one of the following has released the LEADS survey report?

  1.  Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship
  2.  Reserve Bank of India
  3.  NITI Aayog
  4.  Ministry of Commerce and Industry

हाल ही में, निम्नलिखित में से किसने लीड्स सर्वेक्षण रिपोर्ट जारी की है?

  1.  कौशल विकास और उद्यमिता मंत्रालय
  2.  भारतीय रिजर्व बैंक
  3.  नीति आयोग
  4.  
  5. वाणिज्य और उद्योग मंत्रालय

Explanation:

  • To assess logistics infrastructure, service and human resources across India, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry released the LEADS survey report.
  • Logistics is the management of the flow of things between the point of origin and the point of consumption to meet the requirements of customers or corporations.
  • Categories for ranking: Achievers; Fast Movers and Aspirers.
  • The benefit of good logistics: Improves trade competitiveness, ease of doing business and economic growth.
  • Recommendations: Draft state-specific logistics policy ( in line with National Logistics Policy 2022); Develop Grievance Redressal System (in line with Ease of Logistics (E-LogS) portal; establish a dedicated land bank.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) The concept of federalism has unrelentingly changed its contours in Indian Polity. Discuss, and examine the significant gaps in the Indian Federalism.(150 words)

संघवाद की अवधारणा ने भारतीय राजनीति में अपने स्वरूप को लगातार बदल दिया है। भारतीय संघवाद में महत्वपूर्ण कमियों पर चर्चा करें और उनका परीक्षण करें। (150 शब्द)

Introduction:

  • Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent political units. The Constitution of India establishes a federal structure to the Indian government, declaring it to be a “Union of States”. Indian model of federalism is called quasi-federal system as it contains major features of both a federation and union.

Body:

  • Parliament, the avowed “temple of democracy”, has been reduced to a site for procedural formalities. At least the Lok Sabha appears to be an extension of the executive, rather than a mechanism for its accountability.
  • Article 256 of the Constitution obligates the State government to ensure implementation of the laws made by Parliament. If the State government fails to do so, the Government of India is empowered to give “such directions to a State as may appear… to be necessary”.
  • The refusal to enforce the law even after the Centre issues directions would empower the President to impose President’s Rule in those States under Articles 356 and 365.
  • The Supreme Court of India has also confirmed this reading of the law in R. Bommai v. Union of India — arguably the most significant case on Indian federalism. The brute dominance of the ruling persuasion has dwarfed any semblance of Opposition politics at the Centre. This is manifested through the absence of the Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha for six years in a row.
  • On the introduction of GST, critics argue on the autonomy of states.
  • With too much power given to a state, it may want to shift away from the union. Jammu & Kashmir’s special powers are in question in the public time and again.
  • The continued existence of provisions such as Article 356 (President’s rule) goes against the grain of federalism.
  • States such as Karnataka, Tamil Nadu have asserted their linguistic and cultural rights in the wake of the Centre’s interventions such as a promotion of Hindi.
  • States perceive that their progress is being penalised: While the southern States contribute to the nation economically, they don’t occupy a central space politically and are further marginalised culturally.
  • Disputes between states over sharing of river water, for example between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over Cauvery water

Conclusion:

  • We need to strike a balance between both unitary and federal features of the country. States should be autonomous in their own sphere but they can’t be wholly independent to avoid a state of tyranny in the nation.
  • Long-term solution is to foster genuine fiscal federalism where states largely raise their own revenue. Creating a fiscal structure where the states have greater revenue-raising authority, as well as greater decision making power on spending.  India needs to move away from centralization-decentralization thinking, and embrace genuine fiscal federalism by permanently creating a fiscal power centre in the states.

Mains Practice Question:

Q) “One of the most significant impacts of climate change is on our food system”. Explain (150 words)

“जलवायु परिवर्तन के सबसे महत्वपूर्ण प्रभावों में से एक हमारी खाद्य प्रणाली पर है”। समझाएं (150 शब्द)

 

The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 21 October 2022

 

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