The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC
There are five species of rhino – white and black rhinos in Africa, and the greater one-horned, Javan and Sumatran rhino species in Asia.
- Black Rhino: Critically endangered. Smaller of the two African species.
- White Rhino: Near Threatened. Researchers have created an embryo of the northern white rhino by using In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) process.
- One-Horned Rhino: Vulnerable
- Javan: Critically Endangered
- Sumatran Rhino: Critically Endangered. It has gone extinct in Malaysia.
- Only the Great One-Horned Rhino is found in India.
- Also known as Indian rhino, it is the largest of the rhino species.
- It is identified by a single black horn and a grey-brown hide with skin folds.
- They primarily graze, with a diet consisting almost entirely of grasses as well as leaves, branches of shrubs and trees, fruit, and aquatic plants.
- The species is restricted to small habitats in Indo-Nepal terai and northern West Bengal and Assam.
- In India, rhinos are mainly found in Assam, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.
- Assam has an estimated 2,640 rhinos in four protected areas, i.e. Pabitora Wildlife Reserve, Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park, Kaziranga National Park, and Manas National Park.
- About 2,400 of them are in the Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve (KNPTR).
- IUCN Red List: Vulnerable.
- In a joint statement on March 10, 2023, by Iran, Saudi Arabia, and China (sitting at a table in the shape of an isosceles triangle), the three countries announced that an agreement has been reached between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Iran covering a resumption of diplomatic relations between them and a re-opening of their embassies and missions within a period not exceeding two months.
- India’s reaction to this development has been restrained. Apart from historical linkages, the region is in India’s proximate neighbourhood and within its security parameters.
- It is the principal source of hydrocarbon imports, and increasingly of investments.
- agreement between Saudi Arabia and Iran reflects a new sort of regional alignment amidst America’s declining influence
- Climate and Energy Ministers and envoys from G-7 countries on Sunday committed to work towards ensuring carbon-free electricity production by 2035 and “accelerating” the phase- out of coal. This was part of an agreement by the countries at the end of a two-day conference in Sapporo, Japan, ahead of the G-7 summit in Hiroshima this May.
- A proposal to have a 2030 deadline for phasing out coal was shot down as the final text gives leeway for continued investment in gas, on the grounds that it could be a stopgap against energy shortfalls, Reuters reported.
- Environment Minister Bhupendra Yadav had also participated in the summit with India being invited as a ‘guest’, in the context of its presidency of the G-20. At the United Nations-Conference of Parties (COP) meeting in Glasgow in 2021, India had objected to language in the agreement to “phase out” and pushed instead for a “phase down” of coal.
What is Group of Seven (G7)?
- It is an intergovernmental organisation that was formed in 1975.
- The bloc meets annually to discuss issues of common interest like global economic governance, international security and energy policy.
- The G7 countries are the UK, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the US.
- All the G7 countries and India are a part of G20.
- The G7 does not have a formal charter or a secretariat. The presidency, which rotates among member countries each year, is in charge of setting the agenda. Sherpas, ministers and envoys hammer out policy initiatives before the summit.
World Food Programme (WFP)
- It was established in 1961 by the United Nations (UN) to help alleviate world hunger.
- Its headquarters are in Rome, Italy.
- The first development programme is launched in Sudan in 1963
- It is governed by an Executive Board consisting of 36 Member States, which provides intergovernmental support, direction and supervision of WFP’s activities.
- In 2020, it was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict.
- Brazil’s President on Sunday said he discussed joint mediation for Russia’s war in Ukraine with China and the United Arab Emirates, accusing the U.S. and Europe of prolonging the conflict.
- “Europe and the U.S. continue to give their way of contribution to continue the war. So they have to sit around the table and say, ‘That’s enough’.”
- He also lashed out at the dollar’s dominance in global trade, calling for a new currency for transactions between the BRICS countries — Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
- BRICS is an acronym for the grouping of the world’s leading emerging economies, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.
- In 2001, the British Economist Jim O’Neill coined the term BRIC to describe the four emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
- The grouping was formalised during the first meeting of BRIC Foreign Ministers’ in 2006.
- South Africa was invited to join BRIC in December 2010, after which the group adopted the acronym BRICS.
- The chairmanship of the forum is rotated annually among the members, in accordance with the acronym B-R-I-C-S.
- India is the chair for 2021.
Initiatives of the BRICS:
- New Development Bank:
- During the Sixth BRICS Summit in Fortaleza (Brazil) in 2014, the leaders signed the Agreement establishing the New Development Bank (NDB – Shanghai, China).
- It has so far approved 70 infrastructure and sustainable development projects worth.
- Contingent Reserve Arrangement:
- In 2014, the BRICS governments had signed a treaty on the setting up of the contingent reserve arrangement
- The arrangement is aimed at forestalling short-term balance of payments pressures, provide mutual support and strengthen financial stability of the BRICS nations.
Q) Exercise Orion, is a multinational exercise hosted by which one of the following countries?
अभ्यास ओरियन, एक बहुराष्ट्रीय अभ्यास है जिसकी मेजबानी निम्नलिखित में से किस देश द्वारा की जाती है?
About Exercise Orion:
- It is a multinational exercise hosted by the French government.
- It is reportedly the largest ever multinational exercise being carried out by the French defence forces which have involved their Army, Navy and Air Force.
- It includes ground troops, warships, aircraft carriers and combat aircraft and is meant to boost military cooperation and interoperability among participating nations.
- Besides the IAF and the FASF, Air Forces from Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, U.K. and U.S. would also be flying in this multilateral exercise.
- The IAF contingent will include four Rafale aircraft, two C-17, two IL-78 aircraft and 165 air warriors.
- This would be the first overseas exercise for the IAF’s Rafale aircraft.
Q) India’s tallest Ambedkar statue, recently seen in the news, lies in which state?
- Tamil Nadu
हाल ही में खबरों में रही भारत की सबसे ऊंची अम्बेडकर प्रतिमा किस राज्य में स्थित है?
Telangana Chief Minister will unveil a 125-feet-tall statue of Dr B R Ambedkar on the banks of Hussainsagar, marking the latter’s 132nd birth anniversary.
About India’s tallest Ambedkar statue:
- Location: On the banks of Hussainsagar near the new Secretariat complex in Hyderabad.
- It is claimed to be the tallest statue in the country ever built for Dr B R Ambedkar.
- Height: It has an overall height of 175 feet, including a 50 feet high circular base resembling the edifice of the Parliament of India.
- The statue weighs 474 tonnes.
- Materials used:
- 360 tonnes of stainless steel was used for building the armature structure of the statue.
- 114 tonnes of bronze was used for the casting of the statue.
- Designers: It was designed by renowned sculptors Ram Vanji Sutar and his son Anil Ram Sutar of Ram Sutar Art Creations in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, who also designed several monumental sculptures, including the world’s tallest statue — the Statue of Unity (597 feet) of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in Gujarat.
Q) With reference to the Bishnoi community, consider the following statements:
- They are a nomadic community residing in the state of Arunachal Pradesh.
- They trace their origins to the teachings of Guru Jambhesvara.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
बिश्नोई समुदाय के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:
- वे अरुणाचल प्रदेश राज्य में रहने वाले एक खानाबदोश समुदाय हैं।
- वे अपने मूल को गुरु जम्भेश्वर की शिक्षाओं में खोजते हैं।
उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?
- केवल 1
- केवल 2
- 1 और 2 दोनों
- न तो 1 और न ही 2
People from the Bishnoi community are protesting against the “widespread” felling of Khejri trees for setting up solar power plants in Rajasthan.
- The Bishnois belong to a Hindu religious sect found in the Western Thar Desert and some northern states of India.
- They trace their origins to the teachings of Guru Jambhesvara who was born to a Panwar Rajput family in 1451 AD at Peepasar village of Nagore district in Western Rajasthan.
- They strictly forbid the harming of trees and animals.
- They believe in protecting the environment and can die doing it so.
- The person of this community are inspired and gets inspiration from Amrita Devi, a Bishnoi woman who was killed in 1730 while trying to protect a grove of khejri trees.
- They are not a nomadic community.
Q) Kamchatka Peninsula, recently seen in the news, lies in which one of the following countreis?
हाल ही में खबरों में रहा कामचटका प्रायद्वीप निम्नलिखित में से किस देश में स्थित है?
About Kamchatka Peninsula:
- Location: It lies in far eastern Russia, between the Sea of Okhotsk on the west and the Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea on the east.
- It is one of the world’s most concentrated areas of geothermal activity, with about 30 active volcanoes.
- It is about 1,200 km long north-south and about 480 km across at its widest.
- Area: Approximately 370,000 square km.
- About the size of New Zealand, it is one of the largest peninsulas in the world.
- Population: About 300,000 people live on the peninsula. The population density is one of the lowest in the world, at less than a person per square kilometre.
- Climate: Severe, with prolonged, cold, and snowy winters and wet, cool summers.
- Regional Capital: Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.
- The Kuril island chain runs from the southern tip of the peninsula to a short distance from Japan’s northern Hokkaido Island.