Q4. State the objectives and measures of land reforms in India. Discuss how land ceiling policy on landholding can be considered as an effective reform under economic criteria. – Agriculture
Land reform refers to efforts to reform the ownership and regulation of land. They are primarily targeted at equitable redistribution of land with the aim of increasing productivity and decreasing poverty.
Objectives of land reforms in India:
- Social Justice: Abolition of the zamindari system was aimed at equitable distribution of land.
- To protect rights of tenants by providing them security of tenure and experience social welfare schemes.
- To improve agriculture productivity by redistributing them to tenants so that they should take more efforts.
- To consolidate and update the land records.
Measures taken to implement land reforms in the country:
- Agricultural Land (Ceiling and Holding) Act 1960: The act was passed by the parliament to encourage the states to implement state land reforms.
- State Abolition of Intermediaries acts:
The Zamindari Abolition Act, 1950 (Uttar Pradesh),
The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands Act, 1948 (Maharashtra),
- Tenancy Acts: To give rights to the tenants special acts were passed.
- The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands Act, 1948 (Maharashtra),
- The Punjab Tenancy (Security of Tenure) Act, 1950 (Punjab)
- The West Bengal Estates Acquisition and Tenancy Act, 1953 (West Bengal).
- The Forest Rights Act, 2006: This act recognizes the rights of forest-dwelling communities and individuals over forest land and resources.
- LARR Act 2013: To compensate the landholder while getting their land for developmental purposes. Social impact assessment
The land ceiling policy, which imposes limits on the maximum extent of land an individual or family can own, can indeed be considered an effective reform under various economic criteria. The reasons are:
- Reduction of Land Inequality: By limiting land ownership, land ceiling policies aim to reduce the concentration of land in the hands of a few wealthy landowners.
- Enhances agricultural productivity by consolidation of holdings and investment in agriculture.
- Ensures efficient land use and planning by preventing land holding and reduction in land fragmentation.
- Fosters rural development by promoting inclusive growth and social stability as it addresses one of the root causes of agrarian unrest and land-related conflicts.
- It generates employment opportunities and income sources for the landless and marginal farmers who receive surplus land.
- It facilitates institutional credit and extension services for the small and marginal farmers who have secure ownership rights
- It creates a conducive environment for agricultural diversification and allied activities, such as horticulture, animal husbandry, fisheries, etc.
Land Reforms have significant outcomes in terms of economic criteria such as equitable distribution, increased productivity and reduced landlessness. However, it also requires political will, effective implementation and nullifying the loopholes in the process. Also uniformity throughout the country is also essential.
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