The Calcutta University Commission, sometimes known as the Sadler Commission, was established in 1917 and named for its chairman, Michael Sadler. Investigating the state and future of Calcutta University is a goal, as is concentrating on the problem of constructive policy in regard to the posed question. The group offered recommendations after discussing the main issues with higher education in Bengal.
It included all aspects of education, from preschool to higher education. It held that enhancing secondary education was an essential prerequisite for enhancing higher education. This article will explore the Sadler Commission 1917–19, which is useful for preparing for the UPSC exam.
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Sadler Commission History
A commission was established by the Indian government in 1917 to investigate and document the issues at Calcutta University. Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds, Dr. Michael E. Sadler, was chosen to serve as the group’s chairman. Members of the commission from India included Sir Ashutosh Mukeiji and Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad.
The Sadler Commission examined the entire area of education from school education to university education, in contrast to the Hunter Commission’s report on secondary education issues and the University Commission’s 1902 report that focused mostly on the many facets of university education. The Commission noted that after the reform of 1904 had been completed and the groundwork for a solid university organization had not been established, an effective synthesis between college and university was still being sought after.
It also stated that there were still issues with high school organization and training. Although the Commission focused on Calcutta University, other Indian universities could more or less benefit from its recommendations and observations.
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Sadler Commission Objectives
The Sadler Commission 1917–19 was established to look into the state and future of Calcutta University. to concentrate on the topic of effective policy in respect to the posed subject. To free universities from the responsibility of secondary education so they can concentrate only on higher education.
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Sadler Commission Recommendations
The 12-year school program should be in place. Instead of matriculating, students should pursue a three-year degree program at a university after completing an intermediate stage. To accomplish this:
- Get students ready for university life;
- Free up universities from having so many students who don’t meet academic standards; and
- Give those who don’t want to go to college collegiate education.
The administration and management of secondary and intermediate education should be delegated to a separate board. Regulations at universities ought to be less strictly framed. A university should operate as a centralised, unitary residential-teaching autonomous body rather as dispersed, affiliated colleges. Priority should be given to female education in scientific and technological fields, as well as teacher preparation programmes, including those for professional and vocational institutions.
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Sadler Commission Impact
Seven new universities were founded between 1916 and 1921: Mysore, Patna, Benaras, Aligarh, Dacca, Lucknow, and Osmani. Soon after, additional universities, including those in Delhi, Agra, and Annamalai, were founded (in Madras). Prior to now, degree colleges were responsible for providing instruction, and post-graduate education was not offered.
The universities at Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras were in charge of awarding affiliation, holding exams, and awarding degrees. However, in recent years, there have been more teaching and residential universities. Academic activities in colleges and universities surged after Honors courses were introduced. The numerous Indian languages were first studied. Facilities for higher education and research were also constructed. The professor role was established in universities.
Universities in Calcutta and Dacca now have education departments. The administration of the university internally has improved. To manage research, testing, and curriculum creation, the Academic Council was founded. In order for Calcutta University to properly turn into a teaching university, the city’s teaching faculty must be organized.
There must be more universities founded and older universities must be redesigned as residential and academic institutions. In order to grow into universities over time, colleges must create new centres. Government interference in academic topics must end, and all universities must be free from all overbearing governmental constraints.
The Court and Executive Council should take the role of the Syndicate and Senate in order to strengthen university administration. A vice-chancellor must be hired on a full-time, salaried basis in order to serve as the university’s administrative leader. Research must be divided into many divisions and must be connected to teaching and teaching practice. Establishing study boards, facilities boards, and statutory organizations is necessary.
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Sadler Commission UPSC
The Sadler Commission’s recommendations had a big influence on how education evolved over the following few decades. The commission’s proposals have drawn criticism for being out of date for the period, and many of the novel concepts they suggested were deemed inappropriate given the situation at the time. Information regarding the Salder Commission for the UPSC Examination is provided in this article.
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