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Editorial Of The Day (2nd May): Indian Ocean Warming


  • A study conducted by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, along with other global institutions, has projected significant warming in the Indian Ocean based on current global carbon emission trends.
  • The Indian Ocean has already warmed by 1.2°C and is expected to heat up further by 1.7°C to 3.8°C from 2020 to 2100.

What are Impacts of Indian Ocean Warming?

Impact on Marine Life and Fisheries

  • The warming of the ocean will accelerate coral bleaching.
  • The heat content of the ocean, measured from the surface to 2,000 metres below (Deep Ocean), is rising at the rate of 4.5 zetta-joules per decade and is predicted to rise to 16-22 zetta-joules per decade in the future (1 zetta-joule equals a billion-trillion joules (10^21 joules)).
  • This warming will harm the fisheries sector.

Impact on Coastal Regions

  • The frequency of severe cyclones is expected to rise due to warming of the Indian Ocean.
  • The monsoon will become more erratic with long dry spells followed by intense rain and flooding.

Cause of Warming and Mitigation Strategies

  • The warming is linked to global warming caused by anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel burning.
  • Current global commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are unlikely to significantly impact the Indian Ocean’s warming trend.
  • To mitigate the impact, India needs to collaborate with countries bordering the Indian Ocean to improve data collection and invest in projections to guide development and protection efforts.

Facts About the Indian Ocean

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  • The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world’s five ocean basins (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger than the Southern Ocean and Arctic Ocean).
  • Four critically important access waterways are the Suez Canal (Egypt), Bab el Mandeb (Djibouti-Yemen), the Strait of Hormuz (Iran-Oman), and the Strait of Malacca (Indonesia-Malaysia).
  • The International Hydrographic Organization decided in 2000 to delimit a fifth-world ocean basin, the Southern Ocean, which removed the portion of the Indian Ocean south of 60 degrees south latitude.

Monsoonal Influence and Atmospheric Pressure Variations:

  • During summer, low atmospheric pressure over southwest Asia, caused by hot rising air, leads to the southwest monsoon, which results in southwest-to-northeast winds and clockwise ocean currents.
  • In contrast, during winter, high atmospheric pressure over northern Asia, due to cold sinking air, brings about the northeast monsoon, driving northeast-to-southwest winds and counterclockwise ocean currents.

Status of the Fisheries Sector in India

  • India recorded the highest-ever export of 1.73 MMT worth $8.09 Bn in FY 2022-23 of fisheries and fisheries products.
  • India is the third largest fish-producing country in the world accounting for 8% of global production and contributing about 1.09% and over 6.72% to the country’s GVA and agricultural GVA respectively.
  • India is the 4th largest exporter of fish and fisheries products with a growth in exports of 26.73% in terms of quantity between FY 2021-22 and FY 2022-23.
  • Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of fish in India followed by West Bengal.
  • 100% FDI is allowed under the automatic route in the pisciculture and aquaculture sector in India.
  • The Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying has implemented a flagship scheme “Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)- to bring about Blue Revolution through sustainable and responsible development of the fisheries sector in India” with the highest ever investment of INR 20,050 Cr for five years effective from FY 2020-21 till FY 2024-25 in all States/Union Territories (UTs).


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Greetings! I'm Piyush, a content writer at StudyIQ. I specialize in creating enlightening content focused on UPSC and State PSC exams. Let's embark on a journey of discovery, where we unravel the intricacies of these exams and transform aspirations into triumphant achievements together!

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