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Discuss the consequences of Climate Change on food security in tropical Countries.

Q4. Discuss the consequences of Climate Change on food security in tropical Countries. (10m) Geography

उष्णकटिबंधीय देशों में खाद्य सुरक्षा पर जलवायु परिवर्तन के परिणामों की विवेचना कीजिए।


  1. Start with how climate change is a challenge to food security in tropical countries (through increasing temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and greater frequency of some extreme events). 
  2. Substantiate with either of the data- 
    1. About 80% of the global population most at risk from crop failures and hunger from climate change are in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, where farming families are disproportionately poor and vulnerable (World Bank).
    2. According to Global Food Policy Report 2022 by the International Food Policy Research Institute,  globally, around 65 million people are at risk due to climate change-induced hunger, with 17 million people in India facing hunger by 2030, the highest among all countries.


Consequences of Climate Change on food Security in Tropical Countries (Divide Tropical Countries region-wise)

South America

  • Brazil (Droughts and reduced crop-yield): Increased droughts in arid north-east Brazil ( 2012-2017) impacted corn and bean crops.
  • Peru (Melting of glaciers and water supply): Glacial retreat in Andes of Peru affecting water supply for agriculture.

South Asia

  • India (Heatwaves impact on agriculture):Decreased wheat and rice yields in states like Punjab and Haryana. India’s  2022  ban on wheat exports- spiral effect of the heatwave.
  • Bangladesh (Sea-level rise and saltwater intrusion): Impacting rice cultivation.

South-east Asia

  • Vietnam (Sea-level rise): Impact on rice cultivation and shrimp farming
  • Indonesia (Changing climatic patterns- rainfall and temperature): Impacting tea and coffee production.

West and East Africa

  • Nigeria (changing rainfall pattern, droughts): decreased crop yields for millet and sorghum, impact on livestock.
  • Ethiopia (droughts and floods): Erratic weather patterns leading to food insecurity. 

Solutions to Address Climate Change induced Food insecurity

You can write mitigation and adaptation measures as suggested by IPCC:

  1. Increased soil organic matter and erosion control, 
  2. Improved cropland, livestock, grazing land management, 
  3. Genetic improvements for tolerance to heat and drought. 
  4. Diversification in the food system (e.g., implementation of integrated production systems, broad-based genetic resources, and heterogeneous diets)
  5. Adoption of healthy and sustainable diets,
  6.  Reduction in food loss and waste

Check out the UPSC Mains GS Paper 1 2023 Analysis with detailed expatiation of the topics of Mains GS Paper 1 By the Study IQ Experts

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