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Current Affairs 3rd January 2024 for UPSC Prelims Exam

Goldy Brar Declared Designated Terrorist under UAPA

Context: Satinderjit Singh, popularly known as Goldy Brar has become the 56th person to be named an individual terrorist under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.

Declaration Of Individual As Terrorist Under UAPA

  • 2019 Amendment: It granted the central government authority to classify a person as a terrorist if they engage in, prepare for, promote, or are implicated in terrorist activities.
    • Previously, similar provisions existed in the legislation, specifically in Parts 4 and 6, but they were applicable only to organisations.
    • However, it lacks specificity regarding the level of evidence required to prove an individual’s involvement or potential involvement in terrorism-related activities.
    • The central government may designate an individual as a terrorist through a notification in the official gazette, and add his name to the Fourth Schedule to the UAPA.
    • The government is not required to give an individual an opportunity to be heard before such a designation.
  • Review Committee: Includes a chairperson who is either a retired or sitting High Court judge, along with three other members.
    • This committee has the authority to instruct the government to remove an individual’s name from the designated list of terrorists if the committee finds the inclusion unjustified.
    • Additionally, individuals have the option to approach the court to contest the government’s decision to label them as terrorists.
    • This provision offers a legal recourse for those who believe their designation as terrorists is unwarranted.

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Context: Recently, six individuals accused in the Parliament breach incident underwent psychoanalysis to ascertain their motives.

About Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis, through its detailed and deep exploration of the unconscious, seeks to uncover and resolve deep-seated issues affecting behaviour and mental health. It remains a foundational aspect of many modern psychotherapeutic approaches.

Origins and Development

  • Developed by Sigmund Freud, a Viennese psychiatrist.
  • It was the first modern Western system of psychotherapy.
  • The approach evolved with influences from neurology, psychiatry, psychology, philosophy, and the social and natural sciences.
  • Main Objectives:
    • Psychoanalysis aims to increase self-awareness of unconscious wishes and defences.
    • It seeks to empower individuals by making them aware of these unconscious elements.


  • Central to psychoanalytic theory, the unconscious is considered a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories outside of conscious awareness.
  • Freud believed that repressed impulses and traumatic memories are often locked away in the unconscious due to their threatening nature.

Key Constructs

  • Fantasies: Seen as serving various psychic functions like safety, self-esteem regulation, and coping with trauma. Freud linked them to sexual and aggressive wishes.
  • Defence Mechanisms: These are psychological strategies used unconsciously to protect oneself from anxiety arising from unacceptable thoughts or feelings.
  • Repression: A vital concept where painful memories or impulses are unconsciously forgotten to protect the psyche.

Dynamics of Therapy

  • Transference: Involves clients projecting past feelings or attitudes onto the therapist, often unconsciously.
  • Countertransference: Refers to the therapist’s emotional reactions to the client, which can be based on the therapist’s own unconscious feelings.
  • Resistance: Describes the reluctance of clients to explore painful memories or feelings during therapy.
  • The process of free association, where clients are encouraged to verbalise thoughts without censorship, is a key technique in psychoanalysis.

Regulation Of Virtual Digital Asset

Context: The Financial Intelligence Unit of India (FIU IND) has served Show Cause Notices to nine international Virtual Digital Assets Service Providers (VDA-SPs). These notices were issued due to their non-compliance with the regulations set forth in the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA).

What are Virtual DIgital Assets?

“A digital representation of value that can be digitally traded, transferred and used for payment or investment purposes“. – Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

Regulation Of Virtual Digital Assets In India

  • In March 2023, India expanded its Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing (AML-CFT) regulations under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) 2002 to encompass Virtual Digital Assets Service Providers (VDA SPs).
  • These service providers are now required to register with the Financial Intelligence Unit India (FIU IND) and adhere to specific reporting and record-keeping rules.
  • While 31 VDA SPs have successfully registered, many offshore firms catering to Indian customers have not.
  • This situation underscores the complexities and challenges associated with regulatory compliance in the digital assets domain.
  • The Indian government is determined to apply PMLA regulations to both local and international entities, seeking to align with the global framework governing cryptocurrency regulations.

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