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List Of Coal Mines In India, Major Coal Fields, Types of Coal

Coal Mines in India

India has around 319 billion tonnes of coal reserves and is one of the largest coal-producing countries in the world. The major coalfields in India are located in the eastern and central regions of the country, and the coal found in India is primarily bituminous and sub-bituminous in nature.

India has two major types of coal reserves – Gondwana coal and Tertiary coal. One of the most significant and ancient coal reserves worldwide is the Gondwana coal, found in central India, while the Tertiary coal, which is relatively younger, is predominantly found in the northeastern region of India. Both types of coal are used for power generation and other industrial purposes. Gondwana coal is further classified into three categories based on its carbon content – anthracite, bituminous, and sub-bituminous.

List of Coal Mines in India 

Here is state wise List of Coal Mines in India

State Name of Coal Mines
Jharkhand Jharia Coalfield
Giridih Coalfield
Bokaro Coalfield
North Karanpura Coalfield
South Karanpura Coalfield
Ramgarh Coalfield
Daltonganj Coalfield
Odisha Talcher Coalfield
Ib Valley Coalfield
Jharsuguda Coalfield
Rampia Coalfield
Mand-Raigarh Coalfield
Chhattisgarh Korba Coalfield
Hasdeo Arand Coalfield
Mand-Raigarh Coalfield
West Bengal Raniganj Coalfield
Madhya Pradesh:
Singrauli Coalfield
Pench-Kanhan Coalfield
Satpura Coalfield
Telangana Singareni Collieries Company Limited
Tamil Nadu Neyveli Lignite Corporation
Maharashtra Wardha Valley Coalfield
Pench-Kanhan Coalfield
Assam Makum Coalfield
Ledo Coalfield
Lakhimpur Coalfield
Borholla Coalfield
Namdang Coalfield
Meghalaya Jaintia Hills Coalfield
Garo Hills Coalfield
Nagaland Tiru Valley Coalfield
Chumukedima Coalfield
Arunachal Pradesh Namchik-Namphuk Coalfield

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Types of Coal

The various types of coal found in India include:

Type of Coal  Description 
Anthracite It is the highest quality and rarest form of coal found in India. It has a high carbon content, low ash content, and high heating value.
Bituminous It is the most commonly found coal in India and accounts for more than 50% of India’s coal reserves. It has a moderate carbon content and is used for power generation, steel production, and other industrial purposes.
Lignite It is a low-grade coal with a high moisture content and low heating value. It is primarily used for power generation.
Sub-bituminous It has a lower carbon content than bituminous coal and a higher heating value than lignite. It is used for power generation and industrial purposes.

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Largest Coal Mines in India 

The largest coal mine in India in terms of reserves and production is the Jharia Coalfield located in the state of Jharkhand. Jharia Coalfield is estimated to have a reserve of around 19.4 billion tonnes of coal and accounts for over 60% of India’s total coal production. The coal in this field is primarily bituminous in nature and is used for various purposes, including power generation, steel production, and cement manufacturing. However, due to unscientific mining practices, underground fires have been burning in the Jharia coalfield for decades, which has caused significant environmental and health issues for the local population.

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Coal Mines in India Map 

A map of coal mines in India provides a visual representation of the location and distribution of coal reserves in the country. Take a look here. 

Coal Mines in India List, Major Coal Fields, Types of Coal_4.1

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Coal Mines in India Challenges 

Coal Mining in India is faced with several challenges, including:

  • Environmental degradation: Coal mining has a significant impact on the environment, including air, water, and soil pollution. Mining activities can cause deforestation, soil erosion, land subsidence, and the destruction of wildlife habitats.
  • Health hazards: Coal mining is associated with several health hazards, including respiratory diseases, skin diseases, hearing loss, and accidents. The workers are exposed to coal dust, which can cause black lung disease and other respiratory illnesses.
  • Safety concerns: Coal mining is a hazardous occupation, and safety measures are often inadequate. Accidents in coal mines are common, and they can result in loss of life and property.
  • Land acquisition and displacement: Coal mining requires a large amount of land, and the acquisition of land often leads to the displacement of local communities. Displaced people often lose their livelihoods and face social and economic hardships.
  • Illegal mining: Illegal mining is a major challenge in India, and it leads to a loss of revenue for the government. Illegal miners often use unscientific mining practices, leading to environmental degradation and safety hazards.
  • Technological obsolescence: The technology used in coal mining in India is outdated, and there is a need to modernize the mining methods to increase productivity, and efficiency and reduce environmental impact.

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Coal Mines in India UPSC 

Coal Mines in India are an important topic for the UPSC examination because it is a crucial component of India’s energy sector and has significant implications for the country’s economic growth and development. UPSC aspirants are expected to have a good understanding of India’s energy sector, its challenges, and the various policies and programs aimed at addressing them. In addition, coal mining in India is associated with several social, environmental, and economic issues, and the UPSC exam often includes questions related to these challenges. 

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How many coal mines are there in India?

As of 2021, there are around 600 coal mines in India.

What are the 5 major coal mines in India?

The 5 major coal mines in India are Jharia, Singrauli, Talcher, Raniganj, and Godavari Valley coalfields.

Which is the largest coal mine in India?

The largest coal mine in India is the Jharia Coalfield, located in Jharkhand.

Which is the 1st coal mine in India?

The first coal mine in India was opened in 1774 at Raniganj in West Bengal.

Which Indian state is rich in coal?

Jharkhand is the Indian state that is the richest in coal reserves.

About the Author

I, Sakshi Gupta, am a content writer to empower students aiming for UPSC, PSC, and other competitive exams. My objective is to provide clear, concise, and informative content that caters to your exam preparation needs. I strive to make my content not only informative but also engaging, keeping you motivated throughout your journey!

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