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Anglo-Nepalese War, History, Causes, Treaty of Sugauli 1816

Anglo-Nepalese War

The Anglo-Nepalese War began in 1814 and lasted until 1816. During the Anglo-Nepalese War, the British East India Company (EIC) suffered numerous defeats at the hands of Nepalese Gurkhas before triumphing after a protracted conflict that for the first time expanded EIC dominance outside of India. Since then, the British have enlisted the Gurkhas in their army after being impressed by their fighting prowess.

In the end, it was advantageous for both Nepal and the British East India Company. It demonstrated the Gorkha Nepalese Army’s valour and bravery. In the sense that the Singapore police as well as the armies of Britain and India both still employ Gorkha warriors. However, the British also integrated the northern areas of India into it and opened trade with Tibet through Nepal.

Read about: Anglo-Mysore War

Anglo-Nepalese War History

The Gorkhas established their rule in the Nepal region in 1760, and starting in 1767, they began to encroach on neighbouring regions as well. Since the northern portions of Nepal were under Chinese authority, it was simple for them to increase their territorial control in the southern part of Nepal (i.e., Indian Territories). In this situation, the British aspirations to strengthen their northern territorial dominance brought them into conflict with the Nepalese Gorkhas.

Read about: Anglo-Maratha War

Anglo-Nepalese War & East India Company Expansion

The East India Company was established in 1600, and by the middle of the 18th century, it was making its owners extremely wealthy thanks to its trading monopoly in India. The Company served as the official colonial arm of the British government in India, but it also employed regular British army soldiers to safeguard its own interests. The Company was eager to start a more active territorial control of the subcontinent and broaden its network of a trade by the 1750s.

At the Battle of Plassey in June 1757, Robert Clive (1725–1744) achieved a renowned victory for the EIC over Nawab Siraj ud–Daulah, the ruler of Bengal. The huge state treasury was seized, the Nawab was deposed, and the systematic exploitation of Bengal’s riches and populace started. In October 1764, the EIC triumphed in a crucial battle by defeating Shah Alam II, the Mughal ruler, at the Battle of Buxar.

The EIC was then given permission by the emperor to collect land income (dewani) in Orissa, Bihar, and Bengal. This was a significant discovery that gave the Company the means to grow and safeguard its networks of traders, bases, warriors, and ships.

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Anglo-Nepalese War Causes

They wanted to connect with the Tibet region on a business level. The Gorkhas refused to grant the British passage, which the King and Queen of Nepal had to do for this. The Gorkhas rejected letting outsiders into their country. The border dispute between India and Nepal led to the Anglo-Nepalese war (1814–16).

The British brought the English and the Kingdom of Nepal into conflict in 1801 when they acquired the Gorakhpur region and also bought the property from the Nawab of Oudh. The ambiguous border between India and Nepal made a conflict between the two countries inevitable.

Read about: Partition of Bengal

Anglo-Nepalese War 1814-16 Courses

Bhimsen Thapa, the King of Nepal, conquered the Terai of Butwal and Sheoraj, which infuriated Lord Hastings, the British Governor-General at the time (1813-23). The Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16 began when Governor-General Lord Hastings ordered the British Army to attack Nepal in 1814. Many battles were fought between the two years of the Anglo-Nepalese conflict. The following list includes a few significant clashes from the Anglo-Nepalese War-

  • The Battle of Nalapani
  • The Battle of Jaithak
  • The Battle of Malaon

Amar Singh Thapa, the Gorkha Army’s commander and the head of the Nepali military, perished in the Battle of Malaon in 1816. As a result, the Gorkhas were defeated in the Anglo-Nepalese War, which was finally put to end with the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816.

Read about: Revolt of 1857

Treaty of Sugauli 1816

The British East India Company took Sikkim, the Kumaon and Garhwal regions, as well as the majority of the Tarai territory from the Gurkhas. The British East India Company agreed to pay 200,000 rupees per year in exchange as compensation for the loss of Tarai region revenue. A British resident was welcomed in the capital of Nepal. Without the British government’s prior approval, Nepal was not allowed to hire any Europeans.

The British Army accepted the recruitment of Gorkhas. As a result, the Gorkhas in India became a devoted ally of the British, who helped them rule India.

Read about: Indigo Revolt

Anglo-Nepalese War Outcomes

The Nepalese kings were required by the provisions of the 1816 Treaty of Sugauli to have a permanent British resident at their court, leave Sikkim, and cede a sizable portion of their land to the EIC, which comprised the kingdoms of Kumaun and Garhwal. In essence, Nepal became a British protectorate, although at least they were exempt from the EIC’s annual stipend, unlike several princely states in India. There were no future conflicts between Nepal and the EIC thanks to this treaty, which endured, unlike countless other similar agreements.

The EIC then moved on to the northeast to fight in the three Anglo-Burmese Wars (1824–85) and to the northwest to engage in the two Anglo-Sikh Wars after the Nepalese conflict (1845-49). The East India Company, meantime, found great value in the Gurkhas as allies.

According to military historian R. Beaumont, the Gurkhas rose to prominence as “the most renowned mercenaries in Asia” (29). Gurkhas comprised one-sixth of the Indian Army by 1914. The Gurkhas were the first non-British soldiers to have the honour of defending Buckingham Palace, the London residence of the British royal family, due to their renown and reputation for fidelity. The Nepalese, British, Indian, and Malaysian militaries still employ Gurkhas today.

Read about: Civil Disobedience Movement

Anglo-Nepalese War UPSC

The Anglo-Gorkha War began in 1814 and lasted until 1816. In the end, it was advantageous for both Nepal and the British East India Company. It demonstrated the Gorkha Nepalese Army’s valour and valour. This article has all the details related to Anglo-Nepalese War for the candidates preparing for UPSC Examination.

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Who won the Anglo-Nepal War?

While losing the last two fronts in the west, the Gorkhali Army defeated the British on three fronts, including the middle and east.

What is the main reason of Anglo-Nepal War?

The conflict over Butwal and Syuraj was the direct reason behind the Anglo-Nepal war. The ruler of Palpa has held such terai-regional lands since the beginning.

Who won Gurkha war?

That of India, which put a stop to the Anglo-Nepalese (Gurkha) War (1814–16). By the terms of the agreement, Nepal gave up all claims to the contested Tarai, or lowland area, and ceded its conquests west of the Kali River and up to the Sutlej River.

Who saved Nepal from British?

King Prithvi Narayan saved Nepal from British.

Has Nepal ever lost a war?

Nepal suffered a defeat but given that Nepal had fought with small troops against huge and well-armed troops of British India, the defeat was almost a foregone conclusion.

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