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UPSC Prelims News 15 October 2022


UPSC Prelims News of 15 October 2022

INS Arihant

Context: India’s Nuclear Submarine INS Arihant has successfully launched Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM).

More on the News:

  • The launch of the SLBM by INS Arihant is significant to prove crew competency and validate India’s nuclear deterrence capability.
  • A robust, survivable and assured retaliatory capability will uphold India’s policy to have ‘Credible Minimum Deterrence’.

INS Arihant:

  • INS Arihant is India’s nuclear-powered ballistic missile capable submarine and was commissioned in 2016.
  • It was the first of the planned five in the class of submarines designed and constructed as a part of Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project of Indian Navy.
INS Arihant
INS Arihant
  • Technology: The Arihant class submarines are reported to be based on the Akula-class submarine of Russian Navy. It is powered by an 83 MW pressurized light-water reactor with enriched uranium fuel.
  • Significance: The capability of submarines being able to launch nuclear weapons has great strategic importance in the context of achieving a nuclear triad.

Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs):

  • It is a family of indigenously developed Submarine Missiles. They are also referred to as K-family missiles, codenamed after Dr APJ Abdul Kalam.
  • Under SLBM, missiles of various ranges have been developed including K-15 also called Sagarika. It has a range of at least 750 km.
  • India has also developed and tested the K-4 missiles from the same family, having a range of 3,500 km.

UPSC Prelims News of 14 October 2022


Paddy Straw Pelletisation And Torrefaction Scheme

Context: The Union Ministry of Environment has announced a one-time only scheme to incentivize industrialists to set up paddy straw pelletisation and torrefaction plants.

About the Scheme:

  • New units would be eligible for government funding in the form of capital to set up such plants.
  • The Union government will fund pelletisation plants to a maximum of Rs 70 lakh subject to capacity.
  • The cost of setting up a torrefaction plant is higher and under the scheme, is eligible for a maximum funding of Rs 1.4 crore.

Pelletisation and Torrefaction:

  • Pelletisation is a process of molding biomass into dense pellets.
  • Torrefaction is a process in which a biomass is heated in oxygen-deficient environment to completely remove moisture.
  • The product of torrefaction is costlier as its energy content is much higher and theoretically substitutes for more coal in a power plant.
  • Significance: These processes can save coal as well as reduce carbon emissions, which would have been emitted in case the straw were burnt in the fields.

Stubble Burning:

  • Stubble burning is the practice of intentionally setting fire to the straw stubble that remains after harvesting of crops such as paddy.
  • The practice is prevalent in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Western Uttar Pradesh, which has led to air pollution in Delhi-NCR region.


Rythu Bharosa Kendras

Context: An Ethiopian delegation visited Andhra Pradesh to study the Rythu Bharosa Kendras (RBKs) and to understand their operational know-how.

What are Rythu Bharosa Kendras (RBKs)?

  • They are first-of-its-kind seeds-to-sales, single-window service centres for farmers set up by the state government of Andhra Pradesh.
  • These multi-functional kiosks with digital Aadhar authentication equipment act as a one-stop solution for all requirements and grievances of farmers in the state.

Services Provided by RBKs:

  • These centres sell pre-tested quality seeds, certified fertilizers and livestock feed.
  • They also provide farm equipment and enable farmers to sell their produce at the prevailing minimum support price (MSP) via supporting systems of e-cropping, geo-tagging and CM App.
  • They provide services like soil testing and consultancy regarding what crops to sow and quality and type of fertilizer to be used.
  • They facilitate interaction between farmers, agriculture scientists, and agriculture extension officers right at the village level.


  • This has helped farmers change their cropping patterns and increase profits.
  • RBKs are responsible for the elimination of unproductive seeds and uncertified and dangerous fertilizers from the market. This has minimized crop damage and failures significantly.


  • The RBKs were recently nominated for UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s Champion Awards (CCA), which recognizes contributions of governments in boosting food security.


Next-Gen Launch Vehicle (NGLV)

Context: The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is developing a Next-Gen Launch Vehicle (NGLV) to replace operational systems like the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).

What are launch vehicles?

  • Launchers or Launch Vehicles are used to carry spacecraft to space.
  • India has two operational launch vehicles: Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).

What is the New-Gen Launch Vehicle (NGLV)?

  • About: It is a cost-efficient, three-stage to orbit, reusable heavy-lift vehicle with a payload capability of ten tonnes to Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO).
  • Features:
    • It will feature semi-cryogenic propulsion (refined kerosene as fuel with liquid oxygen (LOX) as oxidizer) for the booster stages, which is cheaper and efficient.
    • Its design will be simple and robust which allows bulk manufacturing, modularity in systems, sub-systems and stages and minimal turnaround time.
  • Uses: Potential uses will be in the areas of launching communication satellites, deep space missions, future human spaceflight and cargo missions.
Next-Gen Launch Vehicle
Next-Gen Launch Vehicle

UPSC Prelims News of 17 October 2022

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