The Hindu Newspaper Analysis for UPSC
The Hindu Newspaper Analysis 4 February 2023
- The United States early on Sunday shot down a Chinese surveillance balloon that had floated over American airspace for several days, triggering the latest diplomatic crisis amid already worsening relations between the world’s two biggest powers.
- Beijing reacted angrily to the shooting down of what the U.S. called a “surveillance balloon” but Chinese authorities maintained that it was a civilian airship used for meteorological purposes that had drifted off course.
Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP)
- JETP, an initiative of the rich nations to accelerate phasing out of coal and reducing emissions.
- The JETP initiative is modelled for the South Africa, to support South Africa’s decarbonisation efforts.
- It aims to reduce emissions in the energy sector and accelerate the coal phase-out process.
- JETP makes various funding options available for this purpose in identified developing countries.
- The JETP was launched at the COP26 in Glasgow with the support of the United Kingdom (UK), the United States (US), France, Germany, and the European Union (EU)
- Following that G7 has announced for a similar partnership in India, Indonesia, Senegal, and Vietnam.
- Just Energy Transition Partnership (JET-P) is emerging as the key mechanism for multilateral financing by developed countries to support an energy transition in developing countries.
- This has taken on particular significance following the insertion of the phrase ‘phase-down’ of coal in the Glasgow Pact. After South Africa, Indonesia, and Vietnam, India is considered the next candidate for a JET-Partnership.
- India’s G-20 presidency could potentially be an opportune moment to forge a deal.
- Energy transitions could give rise to intra-generational, intergenerational, and spatial equity concerns.
- Transitions affect near-term fossil-dependent jobs, disrupt forms of future energy access, shrink State’s capacity to spend on welfare programmes, and thus exacerbate existing economic inequities between coal and other regions.
- India has signalled a commitment to clean energy with ambitious targets like 500GW of non-fossil, including 450 GW renewable energy (RE) capacity addition and 43% RE purchase obligation by 2030.
- Any future JET-P deal must consider this broader framework for financing and supporting an energy transition. With India holding the G-20 presidency, it has an opportunity at hand to negotiate a deal for itself while also shaping international cooperation on just energy transitions.
- Much ink has been spilled by now on the Budget’s hike in the tax-free ceiling under the new income tax system introduced in 2020, to ₹7 lakh from ₹5 lakh, with lower tax rates for those who give up existing tax exemptions.
- The Opposition has raised concerns that the government eventually wants to do away with the exemptions that “give some social security to the middle class” altogether. Industry captains are worried this may affect the savings rate and hit investments.
- India’s literacy and financial literacy levels mean many taxpayers cannot deem the right mix of consumption and savings, leave alone directing savings into an appropriate medley of safe as well as inflation-beating investments.
- Adult humans do not behave as rationally as economists would assume.
- For instance, there is a propensity towards more conspicuous consumption among the youth who may find the new tax regime with higher take-home salaries alluring.
- The amount of ₹33,700 that 27-year-old Zeeshan Ahmad Sheikh, a Ph.D. student from the Central University of Kashmir (Ganderbal), was receiving in the form of the Maulana Azad National Fellowship (MANF) every month, was not just catering to his education but also funding the school fees of his younger sister and brother.
- The scheme was launched by the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government as part of the implementation of recommendations of the Sachar Committee.
- According to UGC data shared by the government in the Lok Sabha, 6,722 candidates were selected under the MANF scheme between 2014-15 and 2021-22, and fellowships to the tune of ₹738.85 crore were distributed in this period.
- Union government told the Lok Sabha in December 2022 that the MANF scheme was being discontinued.
- Besides MANF, the budget for several other schemes for minorities has been cut significantly in the financial year 2023-24. The Union Budget’s estimate for the Ministry of Minority Affairs was ₹5,020.5 crore in 2022-23. This time, the Ministry has been allotted ₹3,097 crore, 38% less than last year.
- The Ministry of Minority Affairs implements MANF Scheme for educational empowerment of students belonging to six notified minority communities i.e. Buddhist, Christian, Jain, Muslim, Sikh, Zoroastrian (Parsi).
- The Scheme is implemented through the University Grants Commission (UGC) and no waiting list is prepared under the Scheme by UGC.
- Candidates belonging to the Six centrally notified minority are considered for award of fellowship under the MANF Scheme.
Q) The Dar-es-Salaam Declaration was in news recently is related to
- Desertification and its Mitigation
- Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism
- Water conservation
- None of the above
हाल ही में खबरों में रहा दार-एस-सलाम घोषणा किससे संबंधित है?
- मरुस्थलीकरण और इसका शमन
- अंग तस्करी और प्रत्यारोपण पर्यटन
- जल संरक्षण
- उपर्युक्त में से कोई नहीं
- The Dar-es-Salaam Declarationon ending AIDS in children was endorsed unanimously.
- The commitment marks a step up to ensure that all children with HIV have access to life-saving treatment and that mothers living with HIV have babies free from HIV.
Q) Consider the following statements regarding the State Election Commission.
- The State Election Commissioner is appointed by the President.
- The State Election Commissioner has the status of a Judge of a High Court.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
राज्य निर्वाचन आयोग के संबंध में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें।
- राज्य चुनाव आयुक्त की नियुक्ति राष्ट्रपति द्वारा की जाती है।
- राज्य चुनाव आयुक्त को उच्च न्यायालय के न्यायाधीश का दर्जा प्राप्त होता है।
उपरोक्त कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही है/हैं?
- केवल 1
- केवल 2
- 1 और 2 दोनों
- न तो 1 और न ही 2
- The Constitution of India vests in the State Election Commission, consisting of a State Election Commissioner, the superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of electoral rolls for, and the conduct of all elections to the Panchayats and the Municipalities (Articles 243K, 243ZA).
- The State Election Commissioner is appointed by the Governor.
- The State Election Commissioners work independently of the Election Commission of India and each has its own sphere of operation.
- Powers and removal of state election commissioner:
- The State Election Commissioner has the status, salary and allowance of a Judge of a High Court and cannot be removed from office except in like manner and on the like grounds as a Judge of a High Court.
Q) Injeti Srinivas Committee was formed for making recommendations on
- Reforms in criminal laws
- Universal Basic Income (UBI)
- Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
- Capital market regulation
सिफारिश करने के लिए इंजेती श्रीनिवास समिति का गठन किया गया था
- आपराधिक कानूनों में सुधार
- यूनिवर्सल बेसिक इनकम (UBI)
- कॉर्पोरेट सामाजिक उत्तरदायित्व (सीएसआर)
- पूंजी बाजार विनियमन
- Injeti Srinivas Committee: A High Level Committee on CSR was formed in 2018 under the Chairmanship of Injeti Srinivas.
- The main recommendations included making CSR expenditure tax deductible, allowing the carry-forward of unspent balance for a period of 3-5 years, and aligning Schedule VII of the Companies Act with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
Q) Which of the following best defines the Biosphere?
- It is the upper region of lithosphere.
- It is the narrow zone where land, water and air come together to contain life forms.
- It is the lower atmospheric region near the hydrosphere.
- It is the abiotic component of all forms on earth.
निम्नलिखित में से कौन जीवमंडल को सर्वोत्तम रूप से परिभाषित करता है?
- यह स्थलमंडल का ऊपरी क्षेत्र है।
- यह संकरा क्षेत्र है जहाँ भूमि, जल और वायु एक साथ मिलकर जीवन रूपों को धारण करते हैं।
- यह जलमंडल के पास का निचला वायुमंडलीय क्षेत्र है।
- यह पृथ्वी पर सभी रूपों का अजैविक घटक है।
- The solid portion of the earth on which we live is called the Lithosphere.
- The gaseous layers that surround the earth, is the Atmosphere, where oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other gases are found.
- Water covers a very big area of the earth’s surface and this area is called the Hydrosphere. The Hydrosphere comprises water in all its forms, that is, ice, water and water vapour.
- The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find land, water and air together, which contains all forms of life.
Q) With reference to Nitrogen Cycle, the biological oxidation of ammonia to nitrite takes place in which of the following process?
नाइट्रोजन चक्र के संदर्भ में, अमोनिया का नाइट्राइट में जैविक ऑक्सीकरण निम्नलिखित में से किस प्रक्रिया में होता है?
- Nitrification – Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate. Nitrification is an aerobic process performed by small groups of autotrophic bacteria and archaea.
- Assimilation – Nitrogen compounds in various forms, such as nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and ammonium are taken up from soils by plants which are then used in the formation of plant and animal proteins.
- Ammonification – When plants and animals die, or when animals emit wastes, the nitrogen in the organic matter re-enters the soil where it is broken down by other microorganisms, known as decomposers. This decomposition produces ammonia which is then available for other biological processes.
- Denitrification – Nitrogen makes its way back into the atmosphere through a process called denitrification, in which nitrate (NO3-) is converted back to gaseous nitrogen (N2).