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How are the fjords formed? Why do they constitute some of the most picturesque areas of the world?

Q6. How are the fjords formed? Why do they constitute some of the most picturesque areas of the world? (10m)- Geography

फियॉर्ड कैसे बनते हैं? वे दुनिया के कुछ सबसे सुरम्य क्षेत्रों का निर्माण क्यों करते हैं?


You can start with defining fjords, state where they are found (Norway, Chile, New Zealand, Canada, Greenland, and the U.S. state of Alaska)


Formation of Fjords

State that fjords are formed in areas where current or past glaciation extended below current sea level. Mention the formation of fjords step-wise

  • Glacial Erosion: As glaciers move downhill, they carve out U-shaped valleys in the underlying bedrock.
  • Glacier Retreat:  As the climate warms or other factors lead to the retreat of glaciers, they begin to melt and withdraw from the valleys they’ve carved.
  • Sea Level Rise: When seawater enters the U-shaped valley, it fills the valley floor, creating a long, narrow, and deep inlet known as a fjord.

Fjords as Some of the Most Picturesque Areas of the World

  1. Geological features: Unique landscape characterised by steep, towering cliffs on either side, with deep, narrow waterways in between.
  2. Waterfalls: Fjords are also home to many waterfalls, which are created by streams and rivers that cascade down the cliffs into the water below. E.g., Seven Sisters Waterfall in the Geirangerfjord, Norway.
  3. Unique biodiversity: E.g. Milford Sound in Fiordland National Park is renowned for thriving marine life, including dolphins and penguins.
  4. Pristine and Remote Location: adds to their picturesque appeal. E.g. Milford Sound fjord, New Zealand: Non-officially, it has been called the Eighth Wonder of the World
  5. Cultural Heritage: .E.g Sognefjord in Norway: a UNESCO world heritage site, 
  6. Recreation and Exploration: Adventure opportunities in fjord regions contribute to their picturesque appeal. E.g. Example: Chile’s Torres del Paine National Park.


You can conclude stating the fjords, are unique geographical features that support biodiversity and has huge tourism potential due to their scenic beauty and picturesque appeal 


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