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Drug trade in Indian Ocean region (IOR)

Context: Recent political upheavals in Myanmar and Afghanistan have fueled a massive increase in narcotics trafficking in the Indian Ocean Region.

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What is the Golden Crescent?

  • The Golden Crescent comprises Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan
  • The region is infamous for organised crime activities like the flow of illegal drugs, which aids other illicit activities.
  • India’s proximity to the golden crescent has made it vulnerable to the trafficking of drugs and narcotics.
  • Comprises Of 2 Routes:
    • Northern Route: Opium and heroin are trafficked to the Russian Federation by way of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
    • Southern Route: Heroin travels from Afghanistan through Pakistan and Iran by sea to South Asia, Africa and Oceania region.

Golden Crescent

Golden Triangle

  • The area where the borders of Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar meet at the confluence of the Ruak and Mekong rivers.

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  • The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) estimates that 80 per cent of the world’s opium and heroin supplies are trafficked from Afghanistan.
  • Myanmar is the world’s second-largest illicit supplier of morphine and heroin.

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