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Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 14 February 2023

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC 2023

Q) Which one of the following statements is not correct about the ‘Quasi-crystals’?

  1. They are used in the manufacturing of non-stick frying pans.
  2. They have novel electrical and photonic properties.
  3. Its atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern.
  4. They can be easily produced in laboratories.

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC – 13 February 2023

Explanation:

  • Option (1) is correct but option (3) is incorrect statement: Quasicrystal is a matter formed atomically in a manner somewhere between the amorphous solids of glasses and the precise pattern of crystals. These crystals consist of atoms that are arranged in a pattern that doesn’t repeat itself regularly. Quasicrystals are physical lattices with a translational disorder that retain local, rotational symmetry whereas; ‘perfect’ crystals have both translational and rotational symmetry and are always close-packed. Quasicrystals can be used in manufacturing non-stick frying pans, needles for acupuncture and surgery, dental instruments, and razor blades.
  • Options (2) and (4) are correct: Quasicrystals have been widely created in labs and are known to possess novel electrical, photonic, and mechanical properties that aren’t found in other materials. The dodecagonal quasicrystal is an example of a quasicrystal of any kind formed by electrical discharge. They can be used in selective solar absorbers for power conversion, broad-wavelength reflectors, and bone repair and prostheses applications where biocompatibility, low friction, and corrosion resistance are required. Scientists have discovered a new type of quasicrystal, one with 12-fold symmetry, in the Sand Hills of north central Nebraska, USA.

Q) Consider the following statements about ‘BIMARU’ states:

  1. As per the National Family Health Survey-5, Bihar had the highest under-5 mortality rate, followed by Uttar Pradesh.
  2. Madhya Pradesh is the first state to start a Public Service Guarantee Act ensuring that benefit of better facilities reaches the citizens.
  3. According to the National Family Health Survey-5, the fertility rates are above replacement level in all BIMARU states.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is incorrect: The ‘BIMARU’ is an acronym that has been used to refer to Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. It implies that they have lagged in terms of economic growth, healthcare and education. It was argued that from a family planning and population control perspective, these states have had high population growth rates. They were likely to offset the gains made elsewhere in the country. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-5 had revealed comprises detailed information on key domains of population, health and family welfare. The under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) was high at 42 deaths per 1,000 live births as was the infant mortality rate (IMR) at 35 deaths per 1,000 live births. Uttar Pradesh had the highest U5MR followed by Bihar, whereas the lowest rates were in Puducherry followed by Kerala.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Madhya Pradesh ranks first in distributing Ayushman cards and other States are now adapting MP’s Janbhagidari model. Madhya Pradesh was the first to start a Public Service Guarantee Act (Lok Sewa Guarantee) to ensure that citizens get the benefit of better facilities.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: Total Fertility Rate (TFR) has further declined from 2.2 to 2.0 at the national level between NFHS 4 and 5. The total fertility rate is the average number of children that a woman will have during her lifetime. Five states namely Bihar, Meghalaya, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Manipur have above replacement level of fertility of 2.1. Access to a toilet facility was lowest in Bihar (only 62% had access) followed by Jharkhand and Odisha respectively. In birth registration rates, the registration rate was below the national average in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Jharkhand.

Q) With reference to ‘Web 3.0’ technology, consider the following statements:

  1. Due to the data being spread among numerous nodes, the Web 3.0 is more decentralised.
  2. Web 3.0 is the foundation for edge computing, which makes use of the combined processing power of numerous connected devices.
  3. In contrast to Web 2.0, which uses fiat currency, Web 3.0 relies on cryptocurrencies and a decentralised financial system.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3 

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: Web 3.0 is simply the third-generation internet that evolved from World Wide Web. Previous versions were web 1.0 and web 2.0. It is the next generation of the World Wide Web, which aims to create a more decentralized and secure internet by leveraging technologies such as blockchain, smart contracts, and distributed ledgers. Data and applications are distributed across multiple nodes on the Web 3.0 and create a more decentralized internet. Web 3.0 makes greater use of artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies, enabling more personalized and intelligent applications and services.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Distributed computing or edge computing technology aims to deliver online data and services as close to where it’s being requested or generated as possible with the help of Web 3.0. Edge computing leverages the processing power of many devices linked together, working as a kind of decentralized supercomputer. Decentralized computing is closely linked to the Internet of Things. Web 3.0 creates a more secure and trustworthy internet, where users have greater control over their personal data and transactions.
  • AI: Semantic Web: Data is structured in a way that allows machines to better understand and interpret it.
  • Statement 3 is correct: Whereas Web 2.0 operates on fiat money, Web 3.0 relies on cryptocurrencies and a decentralized finance (DeFi) model. This is part of the decentralization objective, which shifts control from centralized companies or governments to users or the collective. The premise of decentralization extends beyond currency, covering everything from apps to data.

Q) Consider the following statements:

  1. She joined the Indian national movement in the wake of the partition of Bengal in 1905.
  2. She was an inevitable part of the Salt Satyagraha movement and was also part of the Quit India Movement.
  3. The books named “The Golden Threshold” and “The Broken Wing” were written by her.
  4. She was also a member of the All-India Women’s Conference.

Which one of the following personalities is best described in the statements given above?

  1. Sucheta Kriplani
  2. Sarojini Naidu
  3. Usha Mehta
  4. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay

Explanation:

  • Option (2) is correct: Popularly known as the nightingale of India, Sarojini Naidu was born on February 13, 1879 in Hyderabad. She was an activist, poet and a valiant politician. She joined the Indian national movement in the wake of partition of Bengal in 1905. In 1925, she became the first woman to lead the Indian National Congress as the party President. Naidu was an inevitable part of the Salt Satyagraha movement started by Mahatma Gandhi. She was also part of the Quit India Movement started against British rule in India. The British government lauded Sarojini Naidu with the ‘Kaisar-i-Hind’ Medal for her service during the plague epidemic in India. Apart from politics, Sarojini Naidu is recognized globally as one of the finest poetesses in the history of Indian literature. Her poetic works involved a spectrum of topics including patriotism, tragedy, romance, etc. She published in 1912, ‘In the Bazaars of Hyderabad’ remains one of her most popular poems. Her other works include “The Golden Threshold (1905)”, “The Bird of Time (1912)”, and “The Broken Wing (1912)”. She was also a member of the All-India Women’s Conference and worked to improve the status of women in India. She died on March 2, 1949, in Lucknow.

Q) With reference to ‘Filariasis’, consider the following statements:

  1. It is a neglected tropical disease and it harms the lymphatic system.
  2. It is transmitted by mosquitoes named Wuchereria bancrofti.
  3. At present, there is no medication available to stop the spread of filariasis.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is correct: Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease. Lymphatic filariasis impairs the lymphatic system and can lead to abnormal enlargement of body parts, causing pain, severe disability, and social stigma.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: Infection occurs when filarial parasites named Wuchereria bancrofti are transmitted to humans through mosquitoes. Infection is usually acquired in childhood causing hidden damage to the lymphatic system. People with the disease can suffer from lymphedema and elephantiasis and in men, swelling of the scrotum, called a hydrocele, can occur.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: In Africa, the most common vector is Anopheles and in the Americas, it is Culex quinquefasciatus. Aedes and Mansonia can transmit the infection in the Pacific and Asia. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is the drug of choice for treating and checking the spread of filariasis. The drug kills the microfilariae and some adult worms. Recently the Union Health Ministry launched a nationwide mass drug administration (MDA) campaign aimed at ending filariasis disease transmission.

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Sarojini Naidu joined the Indian national movement in the wake of the partition of which in 1905?

Sarojini Naidu joined the Indian national movement in the wake of the partition of Bengal in 1905

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