Current Affairs 30th May 2023 for UPSC Prelims Exam
Central Vigilance Commission
Context: P K Srivastava has been sworn-in as the Central Vigilance Commissioner (CVC).
About Central Vigilance Commission:
- The CVC is a multi-member statutory body created in 1964 to address governmental corruption. Initially, created through a resolution, it gained statutory status in 2003 after passing of CVC bill.
- Its creation was recommended by a committee headed by K Santhanam.
- Structure: CVC consists of a Central Vigilance Commissioner and Two Vigilance Commissioners.
- Appointment: The commissioners are appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal based on recommendation of a Committee consisting of the Prime Minister (Chairperson), the Minister of Home Affairs (Member) and the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha.
- Tenure: Their tenure is 4 years or 65 years of age (whichever is earlier). They are not eligible for further employment under central or state government after retirement.
- Removal: The member of the CVC can be removed by order of the President on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity based on a recommendation of the Supreme Court.
- Grounds of removal:
- Conviction under an offence considered immoral
- Engages in paid employment outside his/her official duties
- If the President considers him/her unfit to hold office
- If he/she acquires financial interests that affect his/her independent functioning
- Monitoring all vigilance activity under Government of India.
- Advising various authorities in central Government organizations in planning, executing, reviewing and reforming their vigilance work.
- CVC exercises supervisory powers over CBI. However, it does not have powers to call for any file from CBI or to direct CBI to investigate any case in a particular manner.
- Preliminary inquiry against officers and officials of Groups A, B, C & D are recommended by the Lokpal to the CVC.
- CVC members are part of the committee that recommends appointment of the Director of Enforcement (ED).
- Limitations of CVC:
- CVC is an advisory body, having no powers to implement orders.
- It does not have resources to address complaints.
- It undertakes only vigilance or disciplinary cases and cannot register criminal cases.
Context: Recently, Sufiyana Mausiki was played at Kunzer area in Baramulla of north Kashmir.
About Sufiyana Mausiki
- This folk music was granted a classical status. It has 180 mukaams or stages.
- However, several stages are lost because of decline in the tradition. Mukaam-e-Bahaar is sung at low pitch and just before the sunset.
- Sufiyana Mausiki gained centrality among the tribe of artisans from Kashmir for many decades now.
- It is a powerful tool to focus and maintain attention on meticulous details while weaving carpets and shawls.
- Regional popularity: Kunzer’s Takiya Batapora area had emerged as the centre of learning for the artisans of the entire Baramulla district at one point of time.
- Well-known artisans: Ghulam Muhammad and Abdul Rasheed.
World Health Organisation (WHO)
Context: Recently, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG), has been re-elected as the External Auditor of the World Health Organization (WHO) for a four-year term from 2024 to 2027.
About World Health Organisation (WHO)
- World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) established in 1948.
- WHO is the first global health organization established in 1948, replacing many regional and national health bodies. Its primary role is to direct and coordinate international health within the United Nations system.
- Aim: It aims to enhance international cooperation for improved public health conditions. Each year WHO celebrates its date of establishment, April 7, 1948, as World Health Day.
- Members: All Member countries of the United Nations may become members of WHO by accepting its Constitution.
- Mandate: It has the authority of directing and coordinating matters related to international health.
- Decision-making: World Health Assembly is the supreme decision-making body of WHO, attended by delegations from all member states.
- The Executive Board of WHO implements the decisions and policies of the World Health Assembly.
- Functions: Its specific tasks include epidemic control, quarantine measures, and drug standardization. WHO promotes the attainment of “the highest possible level of health” by all people.
- Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Context: Recently, Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved a $350 million loan to provide budget support to Sri Lanka for its economic stabilisation.
- The programme is part of a broader package of financial assistance worth $3 billion anchored by the IMF’s Extended Fund Facility for the country.
About Asian Development Bank (ADB)
- Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank founded in 1966 to promote Asian and Pacific economic and social development.
- The bank is headquartered in Manila, Philippines,
- It promotes regional cooperation and integration among its member countries.
- The Asian Development Bank has 68 member countries as of 2023, with 49 from the Asia-Pacific region and 19 from outside the region.
- The Asian Development Bank supports its member countries’ economic development efforts by providing loans, grants, and technical assistance.
- It focuses on infrastructure development, education, health, governance, and environmental sustainability, among other things.
Key areas of cooperation between India and the ADB:
- Infrastructure development: The ADB has funded several infrastructure projects in India, including highway, railway, and port construction, as well as urban infrastructure and renewable energy projects.
- Agriculture and Rural Development: Through various programmes and projects, the ADB has helped India improve agricultural productivity and rural development.
- Education and Skill Development: The ADB has funded a number of education and skill development initiatives in India, including vocational training and higher education initiatives.
- Water Supply and Sanitation: The ADB has helped India improve access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities, especially in rural areas.
Context: The Union Health Ministry recently urged State governments to audit hysterectomy trends in public and private hospitals, in response to a Supreme Court petition arguing that women from marginalized locations are at risk of unjustified hysterectomies for economic gains and exploitation.
What is Hysterectomy
- A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure in which the uterus (womb) is removed.
- It is a common surgical procedure performed on women, typically to treat certain medical conditions.
- Types of Hysterectomy: There are different types of hysterectomy, including:
- Total Hysterectomy: The entire uterus, including the cervix, is removed.
- Partial (or Supracervical) Hysterectomy: Only the upper part of the uterus is removed, while the cervix is left intact.
- Radical Hysterectomy: In addition to the uterus, the surrounding tissues, such as the cervix, upper vagina, and sometimes the fallopian tubes and ovaries, are also removed. This type is usually performed for the treatment of gynecological cancers.
- Reasons for Hysterectomy: Hysterectomy may be recommended to treat or manage various conditions, including:
- Uterine fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus that can cause pain, heavy bleeding, or other symptoms.
- Endometriosis: A condition in which the tissue lining the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing pain and other symptoms.
- Adenomyosis: When the tissue lining the uterus grows into the muscular wall of the uterus, resulting in pain and heavy bleeding.
- Uterine prolapse: The uterus descends from its normal position into the vagina.
- Abnormal uterine bleeding: Heavy, prolonged, or irregular menstrual bleeding that doesn’t respond to other treatments.
- Gynecological cancers: Hysterectomy may be performed as part of cancer treatment.
Hysterectomy in India
- The highest percentage of hysterectomies were to treat excessive menstrual bleeding or pain (51.8%); 24.94% for fibroids; 24.94% for cysts and 11.08% for uterine disorder or rupture, according to NFHS-5 data. Yet, studies have shown that “many of these causes were considered to be treatable and surgery could be avoided”.
- A majority of these cases were reported among socially and economically disadvantaged women.
- The procedure can easily be misused by either private clinics who earn profits (from insurance money) or by contractors in unorganised sectors such as the sugar-cane-cutting industry, where ‘wombless women’ are the norm to eliminate the need for menstrual care and hygiene among workers.
Measures Taken by the Government
- The Union Health Ministry in 2022 issued guidelines to prevent unnecessary hysterectomies — listing possible indications of when hysterectomy may be required and alternative clinical treatments for gynecological issues.
- Further, they recommended setting up district, State-level and national hysterectomy monitoring committees to monitor and collect data on age, mortality, and occupations, among other details.
- The monitoring committees are also tasked with creating awareness, among both practitioners and patients, about bodily anatomy, the role of uterus and when hysterectomies are actually indicated.