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Current Affairs 25th April 2023 for UPSC Prelims Exam

Current Affairs 25th April 2023 for UPSC Prelims Exam

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

Context: The International Fund of Agricultural Development (IFAD) will set up a new framework to facilitate cooperation between small agricultural producers in developing nations and businesses in Japan and elsewhere.

About IFAD:

  • IFAD is a specialized agency of the United Nations that focuses on eradicating rural poverty in developing countries through sustainable agricultural and rural development.
  • IFAD was established in 1977.
  • It was one of the major outcomes of 1974 World Food Conference.
  • IFAD has 177 Member States including India.
  • The IFAD works with rural people allowing them to enhance their food security, improve nutrition and raise their incomes.
  • IFAD operates in low-income and middle-income countries, primarily in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Near East.
  • It provides grants and low-interest loans to finance projects that are developed in close collaboration with local communities, governments, and other development partners.
  • IFAD also advocates for policies and practices that are conducive to rural development and promotes knowledge sharing and innovation in agriculture and rural development.
  • Sustainable Development Goals:
    • IFAD’s mission is aligned with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly Goal 1 (No Poverty), Goal 2 (Zero Hunger), and Goal 10 (Reduced Inequalities).
  • IFAD aims to
    • Empower rural communities,
    • Enhance food security,
    • Reduce poverty and inequality,
    • and contribute to sustainable development and environmental sustainability.
  • Headquartered: Rome, Italy.

Current Affairs 24th April 2023 for UPSC Prelims Exam


Biodiversity Heritage Site (BHS)

Context: West Bengal state government has added four new biodiversity heritage sites (BHS).

About Biodiversity Heritage Sites (BHS)

  • BHS are well-defined areas that are unique, ecologically fragile ecosystems with high diversity of wild and domesticated species, presence of rare and threatened species, and keystone species.
  • Objective: Enhance the quality of life of local communities through the conservation of such sites.
  • Notifying: Under Section 37(1) of ‘Biological Diversity Act, 2002’, State Government may, from time to time in consultation with the local bodies notify these sites.
    • The State Government in consultation with the Central Government may frame rules for the management and conservation of BHS.
  • Impact: Creation of BHS may not put any restriction on the prevailing practices and usages of the local communities, other than those voluntarily decided by them.
  • Nallur Tamarind Grove in Bengaluru, Karnataka was the first Biodiversity Heritage Site of India, declared in 2007.


Operation Kaveri

Context: India has started Operation Kaveri to evacuate its nationals from conflict-torn Sudan.

About Operation Kaveri

  • Nearly 3,000 Indians are stuck in various parts of Sudan, including the national capital, Khartoum, and distant provinces such as Darfur.
  • Participants: Two Indian Air Force C-130J are currently positioned on standby in Jeddah and, INS Sumedha has reached Port Sudan.
  • India is coordinating closely with various partner countries for the safe movement of those Indians who are stranded in Sudan and would like to be evacuated.
    • The MEA and the Indian embassy in Sudan have been in regular touch with the UN, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt and the US among others.


  • It is Africa’s third largest country by area.
  • Before secession of South Sudan it was the largest.
  • White and Blue Niles merge at Khartoum, the capital of Sudan.
  • Darfur region is infamous for civil war. Most of the region consists of a semi-arid plain and thus appears unsuitable for developing a large and complex civilization.
  • Neighbouring Countries: Egypt, Libya, Chad, Central African Republic, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea
Operation Kaveri
Operation Kaveri


Heat Dome

Context: ‘Heat domes’ are natural phenomena that have also been associated with unusually warm periods in India, Bangladesh, China and some other Asian countries.

About Heat Dome

  • A heat dome is a type of high-pressure system that forms over a large area in the atmosphere, and causes extremely hot and dry weather conditions.
  • The system traps hot air and prevents it from flowing to rise and cool.
  • This air then becomes compressed and heats up, leading to a dome-shaped area of hot air that can persist for several days or even weeks.
  • Heat domes can cause dangerous heat waves causing the temperatures to shoot up.
Heat Dome
Heat Dome

Causes of Heat Dome

  • Heat domes can be characterised by a large area of high pressure, a high pressure system is created by sinking air that warms as it descends.
  • Under a heat dome, the air can become stagnant and not move much, which allows the heat to build up and intensify over time.
  • High-pressure systems often bring clear skies, which means there is less reflection of sunlight and more absorption of heat.
  • Locations with a lot of land and relatively dry air, such as plains and deserts, serve as a favourable condition for heat domes to form as well.
  • Climate change: It has led to warmer background temperatures, exacerbating the high-pressure system.
    • Regions that have become drier can also create conditions that are beneficial to the formation of heat domes.
    • Additionally, as the icebergs melt, the temperature and moisture patterns in the surrounding regions are influenced.

Characteristics of Heat Dome

  • Heat domes generally stay for a few days but sometimes they can extend up to weeks, which might cause deadly heat waves.
  • They are more likely to form during La Niña years, when waters are cool in the eastern Pacific and warm in the western Pacific, creating vast areas of sweltering.

Impact of Heat Dome

  • Marginalized Vulnerabilities: Construction workers, farmers and agricultural workers, who work outdoors for long hours, are at increased risk of heat-related illnesses due to their prolonged exposure to high temperatures.
  • Health Impact: Heat exhaustion occurs upon exposure to high temperature for extended periods of time, and can be characterized by symptoms such as dehydration, dizziness and nausea.
  • Impacts on Environment: Droughts and wildfires are some of the most devastating bearings due to the hot and dry conditions, paired up with reduced rainfall and increased evaporation rates.
  • Impact on Infrastructure: Heat domes cause damage to infrastructure such as roads and buildings, particularly if they were not designed to withstand such conditions.

Steps to Mitigate Heat Dome Impacts

  • Reducing greenhouse emissions: Transitioning to renewable energy sources, improving energy efficiency and promoting sustainable transportation, can be measures in achieving a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as it is critical to mitigating the impacts of heat domes in long terms.
  • Investing in green infrastructure: Cities can invest in green infrastructure, such as parks, green roofs, and tree planting, which can help reduce the urban heat island effect and provide cooling benefits.
  • Implementing building codes and standards: Building codes and standards can ensure that new buildings are designed to withstand extreme heat and maintain indoor comfort during heat waves.
  • Reducing heat-trapping surfaces: Cities can take steps to reduce the amount of heat-trapping surfaces, such as asphalt and concrete, which can exacerbate the urban heat island effect.
  • Enhancing public education and outreach: Educating the public about the risks of extreme heat and how to stay safe during heat waves can help reduce the incidence of heat-related illness and mortality.



Context: Malaria is set to become a notifiable disease across India, with Bihar, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Meghalaya too in the process of putting this vector-borne disease in the category.

More on the News:

  • This will then require by law that cases be reported to government authorities.
  • Currently malaria is a notifiable disease in 33 States and Union Territories in India.
  • It is part of India’s vision to be malaria-free by 2027 and to eliminate the disease by 2030.

About Malaria

  • Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by parasites (plasmodium vivax, plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium malariae and plasmodium ovale).
  • It is transmitted through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes.
  • It is found in tropical and subtropical climates where the parasites can thrive and are prevalent in Africa, followed by Asia and Latin America.

Notifiable Disease

  • A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities.
    • The collation of information allows the authorities to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks.
  • The World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations, 1969 require disease reporting to the WHO in order to help with its global surveillance and advisory role.
  • The Centre has notified several diseases such as cholera, diphtheria, encephalitis, leprosy, meningitis, pertussis (whooping cough), plague, tuberculosis, AIDS, hepatitis, measles, yellow fever, malaria dengue, etc.
  • The onus of notifying any disease and the implementation lies with the state government.
    • Any failure to report a notifiable disease is a criminal offence and the state government can take necessary actions against defaulters.
  • Significance: It helps the government keep track and formulate a plan for elimination and control.
    • It improves information about the burden and distribution of disease.

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