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Census of India, History, Census of India 2011 & 2021

Census of India

In India, the first Census of India was carried out between 1865 and 1872 over a period of 8 years. This was carried out asynchronously in different regions of India. This year has been designated as the first Indian population census year because it was the year the process achieved its conclusion in 1872. The first simultaneous population count, however, took place in India in 1881. One of the world’s biggest administrative projects is the Indian Census. Candidate can read about Census of India one of the important part of UPSC Syllabus for Civil Services preparation.

Census of India History

First Census of India (1881)

It placed a strong focus on categorizing the demographic, economic, and social traits of British India’s entire continent (Except Kashmir and French and Portuguese colonies).

Second Census of India (1891)

It followed a methodology that was remarkably similar to that of the 1881 census. In an effort to provide complete coverage, Sikkim, Kashmir, and the upper portion of modern-day Burma were also included.

Third Census of India (1901)

Balochistan, Rajputana, Andaman Nicobar, Burma, Punjab, and distant regions of Kashmir were also counted in this census.

Fifth Census of India (1921)

The only decade up until now to experience a decadal population drop of 0.31% was the decade from 1911 to 21.The influenza pandemic of 1918, which claimed at least 12 million lives, concluded during this decade. Up until the 1921 Census, India’s population continued to grow, and it has continued to do so since. In India’s population history, the census year of 1921 is therefore referred to as “The Great Divide” year.

Eleventh Census of India (1971)

Following freedom, it was the second Census. A question about fertility for women who are already married was introduced.

Thirteenth Census of India (1991)

The sixth census since India gained its independence. In contrast to 1981, when children up to the age group of 4+ were treated as literate, the definition of literacy in this Census changed, and children of the age group of 7+ were deemed literate.

Fourteenth Census in India (2001)

It saw a significant advance in technology. The phase plans were scanned using high-speed scanners, and using Intelligent Character Reading, the handwritten data from the schedules was transformed into digital form.

Fifteenth Census of India (2011)
EAG States (Empowered action group states: UP, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, MP, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan & Orissa) experienced a substantial decline in population for the first time in the 2011 Census. An ICR reads image data and extracts handwriting. The printed characters are captured using a sophisticated form of optical character recognition (OCR) technology.

Sixteenth Census of India (2021)

Because of the Covid-19 pandemic epidemic, the census of 2021 has been delayed. The first computerized Census, however, will also include a self-enumeration option. The information on homes led by members of the transgender community and the people who reside there will be gathered for the first time. There used to be a section reserved for men and women only.

Census of India 2011

This was the fifteenth census of Indians. The home listing and population enumeration were two components of this. Uttar Pradesh was discovered to be India’s most populous state, per the 2011 census. A total of 199,812,341 people called it home, making up 16.51% of all Indians. With a population of 610,577, Sikkim was discovered to be the least populated state in India according to this census, accounting for 0.05% of all Indians.

Census of India 2011 Facts

This table has all the important facts related to Census of India. Candidates can read all the details related census of India 2011 in this table below:

State with the least amount of people Bihar
State with the greatest density of people Arunachal Pradesh
Area of the Union with the smallest population Lakshadweep
Nation’s most populous state Uttar Pradesh
Nation’s least populous state Sikkim
The most sexually balanced state Kerala
The lowest female ratio state Haryana
The nation’s most literate state Kerala
The nation’s least literate state Bihar


Literacy Rate in India Data from Census of India 2011
Male 82.14%
Female 65.46%
Overall Literacy 74%


Census of India 2021

The 15th Indian Census will take place. The population enumeration and house listing stages will be performed separately.   Additionally, it will offer the general population a facility for self-enumeration. The Census 2021 will be the first to gather data using a mobile app. In addition to enabling online self-enumeration, home visits by enumerators will continue to be used to gather census data as in the past.

India will shortly start preparing for one of the biggest headcount exercises in history. The census, which is carried out every ten years, counts all the people living in the nation. The Census provides a clear image of India’s demography, way of life, and activities, and serves as the foundation for the development of important policies.

It aids in constructing government initiatives to enhance community development areas. It serves as a foundation for reviewing the nation’s success over the previous ten years, keeping tabs on current government initiatives, and making long-term plans. The Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, which is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs, is in charge of carrying out the census every ten years. Data on demographics and various socioeconomic factors, including schooling, SC/ST, religion, language, marriage, fertility, disability, employment, and migration of the individuals, are gathered during the Census.

Census of India Registrar General and Census Commissioner

With effect from November 1, 2022, Shri Mritunjay Kumar Narayan was appointed Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Before entering the office of the Registrar General of India, he served as Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Home Affairs.

Census of India UPSC

The census serves as the foundation for reviewing the nation’s progress over the previous ten years, which includes keeping track of the Government’s active programs and, most significantly, making future plans. The catchphrase for Census 2021 was chosen as “Our Census – Our Future” in order to stay loyal to this concept. As of 2021, India’s decennial census has been carried out 16 times. The first comprehensive census was performed in 1881, though it has been conducted every 10 years since 1872, when British Viceroy Lord Mayo was in charge. Read all the details related to Census of India and other important topic Related to UPSC visiting the official website of StudyIQ UPSC Online Coaching.

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What is the current Census of India?

The current population of India is 1,416,148,323 as of March 20, 2023, based on interpolation of the latest United Nations data. The population of India is projected at 1,393,409,038 or 1.39 billion or 1393.4 million or 139 crore as of July 1, 2021.

When was the next census in India?

The Census enumeration scheduled to take place in 2021 has been further pushed to 2024-25 until further orders

When was the last year of Census of India?

The last decennial population Census of India was conducted during 2021.

What is meant by Census of India?

Population Census is the total process of collecting, compiling, analyzing and disseminating demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specific time, of all persons in a country or a well-defined part of a country. It also provides the trends in population characteristics.

Who is the father of Indian Census?

Henry Walter is known as the father of Indian Census.

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