Home   »   UPSC Calendar 2023   »   International Labour Organization

ILO’s World of Work Report

International Labour Organization Highlights of The Report

  • Multiple crises threaten recovery: Multiple and overlapping economic and political crises such as food & energy inflation, impact of COVID-19, Russia-Ukraine conflict etc. are threatening labour market recovery around the world.
  • Declining employment growth: During the first quarter of 2022, global hours worked were 1 per cent below the level of the fourth quarter of 2019, indicating a strong recovery.
    • However, this solid recovery was reversed in the second and third quarters, when the gap in hours worked grew to 1.8 and 1.4 per cent, respectively.
    • The deterioration has been largely driven by two main developments:
  • The re-introduction of public restrictions under Zero Covid Policy in China.
  • Energy and food inflation triggered by the Russia-Ukraine conflict.
    • On current trends, global employment growth will deteriorate significantly in the fourth quarter of 2022.
  • Risk of poverty and inequalities: High and persistent inflation is creating enormous pressures on labour income and workers are struggling to maintain their purchasing power, raising the risk of increased poverty and inequality.
  • Growing divergence: A great and growing divergence between richer and poorer economies continues to characterize the labour market recovery.
    • In most advanced economies, employment has reached or surpassed precrisis levels, but labour shortages are evident in low and middle-income countries.
    • The reason being, the poorer economies already have high debt ratios because of the pandemic, which leaves them with less policy space to protect their hard-hit workers.
  • Spillover effects of tight monetary policies: In a response to inflation, central banks around the world have raised the policy rates to reign in demand and price increases.
    • This excessive policy tightening is causing undue damage to jobs and income in both advanced and developing countries.
    • Also, the policy tightening in advanced economies is creating negative spillover effects in developing countries.
    • The report warned that ‘uncoordinated monetary and fiscal tightening will further depress global economic growth and trade, induce exchange rate instability and labour market inequalities.’
  • Informal job growth outpacing formal work:
    • Concentrated in developing countries, informal job growth in 2021 fully reversed the losses experienced in 2020, whereas formal employment did not.
    • According to forecasts, informal employment will grow at the same rate as formal employment in 2022, endangering the 15-year trend towards formalization.


International Labour Organization Suggestions

  • Integrated approach: The multiple crises raises the risk of another significant global labour market downturn, requiring  comprehensive, integrated and balanced policies  which address not only inflation in isolation but also its  broader implications for employment, enterprises and  poverty.
  • Policy coherence: In order to respond at a global level to multiple economic and geographical crises, internal solidarity and coordination is even more critical, and policy coherence is key.
  • Social dialogue: The set of policy tools to combat multiple crises  needs to be widened through social dialogue,  which would include:

The International Labour Organization (ILO)

  • About: It is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN).
    • It is the only tripartite U.N. agency since 1919.
    • The unique tripartite structure brings together governments, employers and workers of member States, to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men.
  • Establishment:  Established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League of Nations. Became the first affiliated specialised agency of the United Nations in 1946.
  • Aim: To promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities, enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue on work-related issues.
  • Members: At present the ILO has 187 Members. India is a founder member of the ILO.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Flagship Publications of ILO:
    • Global Wage Report
    • World Employment and Social Outlook (WESO)
    • World Employment and Social Outlook
    • World Social Protection Report
    • World of Work Report
  • Conventions: The ILO’s eight core fundamental conventions are as follows:
    • Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (Convention No. 29)
    • Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (Convention No. 105)
    • Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (Convention No. 100)
    • Discrimination (Occupation and Employment) Convention, 1958 (Convention No.  111)
    • Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention, 1948 (Convention No. 87)
    • Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (Convention No. 138)
    • Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (Convention No. 182)
    • Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1948 (Convention No. 98)
  • Note: India has ratified six out of the eight ILO fundamental conventions. India has not ratified Conventions No. 87 and No.98.


Sharing is caring!

Download your free content now!


We have received your details!

We'll share General Studies Study Material on your E-mail Id.

Download your free content now!

We have already received your details!

We'll share General Studies Study Material on your E-mail Id.

Incorrect details? Fill the form again here

General Studies PDF

Thank You, Your details have been submitted we will get back to you.