- North Eastern Council is a constitutional body mentioned in article 371
- It is among 5 zonal councils of India established under states reorganisation act 1956
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- North Eastern Council is a statutory, advisory body established in 1972 via the North Eastern Council Act, 1971 for three key objectives viz.
- a) Balanced development of the north eastern region;
- b) Effecting better inter-state coordination; and
- c) Maintaining security and public order in the region
Annual allocation of North Eastern Council increases: Jitendra Singh
- The 68th Plenary session of the North Eastern Council (NEC) was held in Guwahati on September 8 and 9.
- Union minister of state (independent charge) for Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER) Jitendra Singh annual allocation of North Eastern Council (NEC) have increased from Rs 579 crore in 2014-15 to Rs 1055 crore in 2018-19. The 68th Plenary session of the North Eastern Council (NEC) was held in Guwahati on September 8 and 9. Singh said that the priority of the Government has been to pay attention to the stalled development projects in the North East.
- Speaking about the enhanced fund allocation to the north eastern states, the Minister said that the annual allocations have increased from Rs 579 crore in 2014-15 to Rs 1055 crore in 2018-19, and more than 60 per cent of this allocation had gone to the states. “For the year 2019-20 NEC has been given its highest Budgetary Allotment of Rs 1476 crore. There has been enhanced pace of fund utilization in North east which is evident from the fact that Utilization Certificates worth Rs. 726.0 3 crore have been submitted by the State Governments for the schemes of this Ministry in this year alone
first ever cross-border petroleum products pipeline in South Asia is recently inaugurated between
- India & Bangladesh
- India & Nepal
- India & Tibet
- Bangladesh & Myanmar
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi today reiterated India’s commitment to support the development of Nepal according to priorities of the neighbouring country. He expressed hope that the two countries will move fast to further broaden their partnership and deepen it in the diverse fields.
- Mr. Modi said this while while inaugurating the first ever cross-border petroleum products pipeline in South Asia, the Motihari-Amlekhganj petroleum product pipeline with his Nepalese counterpart KP Sharma Oli through video conferencing.
- The Prime Minister said, it is a matter of great satisfaction that this first cross-border petroleum pipeline has been completed in record time and the credit goes to Nepalese leadership and joint efforts of the two countries. Mr. Modi added that the two nations have completed important bilateral projects and have quickly achieved results from several other initiatives in the last five years including inaugurating of Pashupatinath Dharamshala and ICP Veerganj.
- Mr. Modi said, India and Nepal have come to an unprecedented close at the highest political level and have been in regular contacts over the past few years. The Prime Minister also talked about India’s support to Nepal for reconstruction works after the devastating earthquake in 2015 and expressed happiness that due to bilateral cooperation, people in Gorkha and Nuwakot districts have got their shelters back.
- Speaking on the occasion, the Nepalese Prime Minister said thanked the Indian government for its support. He said India – Nepal relation is not limited to a project and it is so deep and dense that no area of co-operation is left. The Motihari-Amlekhganj petroleum product pipeline is over 60 km-long. As of now, tankers carry petroleum products from India to Nepal as part of an arrangement which is in place since 1973.
- Influenza virus is of four types, A, B, C, and D. among these C & D are fatal to humans
- Recently, India was again declared free of the H1N1 virus, which causes ‘avian influenza’ or ‘Bird flu’ (earlier declaration in 2017).
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- Influenza classification
- Recently, India was again declared free of the H5N1 virus, which causes ‘avian influenza’ or ‘Bird flu’ (earlier declaration in 2017).
- WHO defines influenza as a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses.
- The many kinds of viruses causing influenza are identified by a standard nomenclature issued by the WHO in 1980.
- It is of four types, A, B, C, and D.
- According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), only ‘influenza A and B viruses’ are known to cause ‘epidemics’.
- The ‘C type’ virus usually causes mild respiratory illness.
- The ‘D type’ virus typically affects cattle and is not known to infect humans.
- Influenza is known to kill 6.5 lakh people every year, especially young children, elderly, pregnant women or those with vulnerable immune systems.
- Only the ‘Influenza A virus’ is divided into subtypes, based on two proteins on the surface of the virus,
- Hemagglutinin (H) and Neuraminidase (N)
- Hemagglutinin has 18 further subtypes while
- Neuraminidase has 11.
- They are named from H1 to H18 and N1 to N11 in a sequential system.
- Humans can be infected with avian, swine and other zoonotic influenza viruses.
- Avian influenza subtypes – A(H5N1), A(H7N9) and A(H9N2).
- Swine influenza subtypesn- A(H1N1), A(H1N2) and A(H3N2).
- Novel strains of the H1N1 virus have appeared in 1918, 1957, 1968 and most recently in 2009.
- WHO designated global ‘bird flu’ outbreak in 2009 as ‘Pandemic’.
- Endemic – A disease that exists permanently in a particular geographical region or population.
- Epidemic – An infectious disease spreads rapidly to many people at about the same time.
- Pandemic – An epidemic spreads throughout the country or the world.
- Outbreak – refers to the number of cases (disease) that exceeds what would be expected.
- The 1 st Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal (KWDT) was instituted in 2004. It delivered its report in 2010.
- Maximum water was allocated to Maharashtra as it rises near trimbak plateau in Maharashtra
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- Krishna Water dispute
- Recently, Maharashtra and Karnataka Chief Ministers jointly oppose Andhra Pradesh’s application.
- A.P seeks to relook at the Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal’s 2010 order on water distribution between the riparian states.
- This took a new turn in the Krishna water dispute.
- The Krishna is an east-flowing river that originates at Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra.
- It flowing through Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh before entering into the Bay of Bengal.
- A dispute over the sharing of Krishna waters has been ongoing for many decades.
- In 1969, the ‘Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal’ (KWDT) was set up under the Inter-State River Water Dispute Act, 1956.
- It presented its report in 1973, which was published in 1976.
- It divided the 2060 TMC of Krishna water at 75% dependability into 3 parts.
- 560 TMC for Maharashtra, 700 TMC for Karnataka and 800 TMC for Andhra Pradesh.
- It also stipulated that KWDT order may be reviewed or revised by a competent authority or tribunal any time after May 31, 2000.
- The second KWDT was instituted in 2004. It delivered its report in 2010.
- It made allocations of the Krishna water at 65% dependability and for surplus flows.
- 81 TMC for Maharashtra, 177 TMC for Karnataka, and 190 TMC for Andhra Pradesh.
- Soon after the 2010 report, Andhra Pradesh challenged it through a Special Leave Petition before the Supreme Court.
- In an order, the apex court stopped the Centre from publishing it in the official Gazette.
- In 2013, the KWDT issued a ‘further report’, which was again challenged by Andhra Pradesh in the Supreme Court.
- After the creation of Telangana in 2014, the Water Resources Ministry has been extending the duration of the KWDT.
- Andhra Pradesh has since asked that Telangana be included as a separate party at the KWDT.
- The allocation of Krishna waters be reworked among four states, instead of three.
- Maharashtra and Karnataka are now resisting this move.
- According to these 2 states, Telangana was created following bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh.
- Therefore, allocation of water should be from Andhra Pradesh’s share which was approved by the tribunal.
- Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious Bacterial disease of cattle and swine
- It impacts movability of cattle but milk production is unaffected 3. India has eradicated the disease recently
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(B) 1 & 3
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi would launch the `13,500-crore central scheme — to vaccinate all bovine, sheep, goat and pig population to control foot and mouth disease (FMD) and brucellosis — in Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, on September 11. Singh exuded confidence that FMD and brucellosis diseases would be eradicated in the next five years. The country loses `18,000-20,000 crore annually due to lower yield and impact on export.
- In May, the Union Cabinet, in its first meeting of the Modi 2.0 government, decided to bear the entire cost of `13,343 crore under an existing scheme that seeks to control livestock diseases, especially FMD and brucellosis, in the next five years. Earlier, the Centre and state governments used to contribute funds in the ratio of 60:40. These diseases — FMD and brucellosis — are common among the livestock like cow, bulls, buffaloes, sheep, goats and pigs.
- The scheme envisages vaccination coverage to 30 crore bovines (cows-bulls and buffaloes) and 20 crore sheep/goat and 10 million pigs.
- The government had said if a cow or buffalo gets infected with FMD, the milk loss is up to 100% which could last for 4-6 months. In case of Brucellosis, the milk output reduces by 30% during the entire life cycle of animal and also causes infertility among the animals.
- Also, the infection of brucellosis can also be transmitted to farm workers and livestock owners.
Two components of Programme–
(1) Controlling of diseases by 2025
(2) Eradication of by 2030.
Scheme envisages vaccination coverage to 30 crore bovines (cows-bulls and buffaloes) and 20 crore sheep or goat and 10 million pigs.
Arrange salt producing states in decreasing order
- Tamil Nadu
- Andhra Pradesh
According to the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2017, “Assisted Reproductive Technology services shall not be available to a woman below the age of 18 years and above the age of______ ?
- There is no maximum age defined
- At the United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP) 2015 in Paris, India joined the voluntary Bonn Challenge and pledged to bring into restoration 26 million hectares of degraded and deforested land by 2030.
- According to latest data around 30% land of total geographic area of country is degraded
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(B) Only 2
The no. of total approved Integrated check posts on india’s border is
- The Union Home Ministry said that five of the seven approved Integrated Check Posts (ICPs) at five Indian border crossing points being shared with Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan have been completed.
- “Terminals for smooth movement of goods and people at ICP Raxaul and Jogbani on India-Nepal border, ICP Petrapole and Agartala on India-Bangladesh border and ICP Attari on India-Pakistan border have been made functional.
- Work on ICP Moreh on India-Myanmar border and ICP Dawki on Bangladesh border is in advanced stage of completion,” said a Home Ministry statement.
- The Ministry said facilities have been constructed for customs clearance, Immigration, warehouses for storage of goods, approach roads and terminal buildings to adequately handle import and export of goods and entry and exit of people at each ICP.
- The information was shared after the Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh earlier in the day reviewed the progress of ongoing ICP projects being executed by the Land Ports Authority of India and the Border Management Division under the Ministry of Home Affairs. The total approved expenditure for the seven ICPs is more than Rs 700 crore.