- Carl Gustav Jung was born in Kesswil, in the Swiss canton of Thurgau, on 26 July 1875 as the second and first surviving son of Paul Achilles Jung (1842– 1896) and Emilie Preiswerk (1848–1923). • When Jung was six months old, his father was appointed to a more prosperous parish in Laufen, but the tension between his parents was growing. Emilie Jung was an eccentric and depressed woman; she spent considerable time in her bedroom where she said that spirits visited her at night
- In his memoir, Jung would remark that this parental influence was the “handicap I started off with. Later, these early impressions were revised: I have trusted men friends and been disappointed by them, and I have mistrusted women and was not disappointed.“
- When he was nine years old, Jung’s sister Johanna Gertrud (1884–1935) was born. Known in the family as “Trudi”, she later became a secretary to her brother.
- Jung was a solitary and introverted child. From childhood, he believed that, like his mother,he had two personalities—a modern Swiss citizen and a personality more suited to the 18th century.
- Confronted with the reality of his family’s poverty, he realized the need for academic excellence. He went into his father’s study and began poring over Latin grammar. He fainted three more times but eventually overcame the urge and did not faint again. This event, Jung later recalled, “was when I learned what a neurosis is.“
- There was a strong moral sense in his household and several of his family members were clergymen as well. After studying philosophy in his teens, Jung decided against the path of religious traditionalism and decided instead to pursue psychiatry and medicine.
- His interest was immediately captured—it combined the biological and the spiritual, exactly what he was searching for. In 1895 Jung began to study medicine at the University of Basel. Barely a year later in 1896, his father Paul died and left the family near destitute.
- In 1900, Jung moved to Zürich and began working at the Burghölzli psychiatric hospital under Eugen Bleuler. n 1905 Jung was appointed as a permanent ‘senior’ doctor at the hospital and also became a lecturer Privatdozent in the medical faculty of Zurich University.
- In 1906 he published Diagnostic Association Studies, which Freud obtained a copy of.In 1909, Jung left the psychiatric hospital and began a private practice in his home in Küsnacht.
- Eventually a close friendship and a strong professional association developed between the elder Freud and Jung, which left a sizeable correspondence.
- For six years they cooperated in their work. In 1912, however, Jung published Psychology of the Unconscious, which made manifest the developing theoretical divergence between the two.
- In 1903, Jung married Emma Rauschenbach. It was the publication of Jung’s book Psychology of the Unconscious in 1912 that led to the break with Freud. Letters they exchanged show Freud’s refusal to consider Jung’s ideas.
- Jung spoke at meetings of the Psycho-Medical Society in London in 1913 and 1914. His travels were soon interrupted by the war, but his ideas continued to receive attention in England primarily through the efforts of Constance Long who translated and published the first English volume of his collected writings
THE RED BOOK
- In 1913, at the age of thirty-eight, Jung experienced a horrible “confrontation with the unconscious”. He saw visions and heard voices.
- He saw visions and heard voices. He decided that it was valuable experience and, in private, he induced hallucinations or, in his words, “active imaginations”.
- He recorded everything he felt in small journals. Jung began to transcribe his notes into a large red leatherbound book, on which he worked intermittently for sixteen years.
- In 1938, Jung was awarded with an honorary degree from Oxford. Jung became a full professor of medical psychology at the University of Basel in 1943, but resigned after a heart attack the next year to lead a more private life. He became ill again in 1952.
- In 1961, Jung wrote his last work, a contribution to Man and His Symbols entitled “Approaching the Unconscious” (published posthumously in 1964). Jung died on 6 June 1961 at Küsnacht after a short illness.He had been beset by circulatory diseases.
Dr.CARL GUSTAV JUNG
- Analytical psychology (sometimes analytic psychology), also called Jungian psychology, is a school of psychotherapy which originated in the ideas of Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist. It emphasizes the importance of the individual psyche and the personal quest for wholeness.
- Important concepts in Jung’s system are individuation, symbols, the personal unconscious, the collective unconscious, archetypes, complexes, the persona, the shadow, the anima and animus, and the self.
- Also crucial is the belief that dreams show ideas, beliefs, and feelings that individuals are not readily aware of but need to be, and that such material is expressed. Analytical psychology distinguishes between a personal unconscious and a collective unconscious.
- This content is more easily viewed as answers to the more fundamental questions of humanity: life, death, meaning, happiness, fear. Among these more spiritual concepts may arise and be integrated into the personality.
- The overarching goal of Jungian psychology is the attainment of self through individuation. Jung defines “self” as the “archetype of wholeness and the regulating center of the psyche”. Central to this process is the individual’s encounter with his/her psyche and the bringing of its elements into consciousness.
- To undergo the individuation process, individuals must be open to the parts of themselves beyond their own ego. According to Jung, self-realization is attained through individuation.
- The shadow is an unconscious complex defined as the repressed, suppressed or disowned qualities of the conscious self.
- According to Jung, the human being deals with the reality of the shadow in four ways: denial, projection, integration and/or transmutation.
- According to analytical psychology, a person’s shadow may have both constructive and destructive aspects. In its more destructive aspects, the shadow can represent those things people do not accept about themselves. In its more constructive aspects, a person’s shadow may represent hidden positive qualities. This has been referred to as the “gold in the shadow”.
ANIMA AND ANIMUS
- Jung identified the anima as being the unconscious feminine component of men and the animus as the unconscious masculine component in women.
- However, this is rarely taken as a literal definition: many modernday Jungian practitioners believe that every person has both an anima and an animus.
- According to Jung, why we are sometimes immediately attracted to certain strangers: we see our anima or animus in them. Love at first sight is an example of anima and animus projection. Moreover, people who strongly identify with their gender role (e.g. a man who acts aggressively and never cries) have not actively recognized or engaged their anima or animus.
ANIMA AND ANIMUS
- Analytical psychology distinguishes several psychological types or temperaments.
- According to Jung, the psyche is an apparatus for adaptation and orientation, and consists of a number of different psychic functions. Among these he distinguishes four basic functions:
- Sensation – Perception by means of the sense organs
- Intuition – Perceiving in unconscious way or perception of unconscious contents
- Thinking – Function of intellectual cognition; the forming of logical conclusions
- Feeling – Function of subjective estimation
- Jung’s work on himself and his patients convinced him that life has a spiritual purpose beyond material goals. Our main task, he believed, is to discover and fulfill our deep, innate potential.
- Jung believed that this journey of transformation, which he called individuation, is at the mystical heart of all religions. It is a journey to meet the self and at the same time to meet the Divine.Jung recommended spirituality as a cure for alcoholism.