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Yojana Magazine Analysis August 2018 – Free PDF Download in Hindi/English

What is Empowerment?

• Empowerment = having control over one’s life

• Social Empowerment = all sections of society having equal control over their lives and opportunity to take important decisions

• This issue deals with what government is doing for empowerment of weaker sections

Who are the weaker sections?

• Other Backward Classes (41.7% __ NSSO)

• Scheduled Castes (16.6% __ Census 2011)

• Scheduled Tribes (8.6% __ Census 2011)

• Senior Citizens (8.6% __ Census 2011)

• Differently Abled (2.2% __ Census 2011)

• Victims of substance abuse (1%)

Questions from Articles

1. Discuss the ongoing initiatives for empowerment of various weaker sections?

2. What are the recent steps taken up by government to promote financial inclusion in weaker sections?

3. How has education brought about a social change amongst the weaker sections of society?

4. Discuss the role of Panchayati Raj Institutions in political empowerment of weaker sections?

5. What are the provisions for social justice in the Indian Constitution?

Q1. Discuss the ongoing initiatives for empowerment of various weaker sections?

• Scheduled Castes

• Scheduled Tribes

• Other Backward Classes

• Differently Abled

• Senior Citizens

Scheduled Castes

• Communities within the Hindu Caste system that have historically faced deprivation, oppression and social isolation

• Only marginalized “Hindu” communities can be deemed Scheduled Castes – The word “Hindu” has been used to denote persons professing: Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism or Sikhism

• ‘Scheduled’ because enumerated in a list or Schedule in The Constitution Order (Scheduled Caste) 1950

Scheduled Castes

Major initiatives:

• Legal & Planning – SC & ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 (in news)

• Strengthened in 2016 by adding new offences

• Diluted/relaxed in Mar 2018 by Supreme Court

• Govt. brings Bill in Aug 2018 to turnaround judgment – SC Sub Plan (1979) is now Allocation for the Welfare of SCs (AWSC)

• Funds to be allocated in proportion to the population

• Education – Pre/Post Matric Scholarship – National Fellowship Scheme (with UGC/HECI) • PM Adarsh Gram Yojana for overall development in SC majority villages

Scheduled Tribes

Major initiatives:

• Legal & Planning – Forest Rights Act 2006 – Tribal Sub Plan

• Education – Pre/Post Matric Scholarship – National Fellowship and Scholarship Scheme • Other – MSP for Minor Forest Produce (24) across all states – Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG)

Other Backward Classes

Major initiatives:

• Education – Pre/Post Matric Scholarship – National Fellowship Scheme (with UGC/HECI) • Skill Development – National Backward Classes Finance & Development Corporation Differently Abled

• Aim: To create an inclusive, barrier-free and rights-based society for PwDs

• Major initiatives

for PwDs: – Accessible India Campaign

• To create universal accessibility for PwDs – Assistance to Disabled Persons (ADIP)

• E.g. Cochlear Implant Programme – Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme

• Financial assistance to NGOs running rehabilitation schemes

Senior Citizens

Major initiatives:

• Integrated Programme for Senior Citizens – Support for basic amenities like shelter, food, medical care and entertainment

• Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana – For providing Physical Aids and Assisted-living Devices to senior citizens belonging to BPL category

• PM Vaya Vandana Yojana – Pension scheme that provides an assured return of 8% p.a. payable monthly for 10 years – Limit increased from 7.5 to 15 Lakh in latest Budget

Q2. What are the recent steps taken by government to promote financial inclusion in weaker sections?

Barriers to Financial Inclusion

Demand-side – Low income – Financial illiteracy – Digital illiteracy – Lack of awareness – Poor marketing Supply-side – Branch proximity – Documentation – Repayment terms – Attitude of bank staff – Technical issues

Initiatives for Financial Inclusion

• Finance & Development Corporations* to give concessional finance to:

– Scheduled Castes

– Scheduled Tribes

– Safai Karamcharis

– Backward Classes

– Minorities

– Handicapped *Above are not for profit u/s 25 of Companies Act Other Initiatives

• Rashtriya Mahila Kosh

• PM MUDRA Yojana

• Stand Up India Scheme

• Startup Village Entrepreneurship Programme

• Venture Capital Fund Scheme (for SCs & OBCs)

• Credit Enhancement Guarantee Scheme

• PM Jan Dhan Yojana

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• Autonomous organization under MoWCD

• Provides micro credit to poor asset-less women

• Credit is given for income generating activities

• Offers loans for upto 12% simple interest to SHGs

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• Loans upto Rs. 10 Lakh for non-corporate non-farm micro and small enterprises – ~90% of this sector does not have access to formal sources of finance – Disbursed by Commercial Banks, RRBs, Small Finance Banks, Cooperative Banks, MFIs and NBFCs – Refinanced by Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency Bank (or MUDRA Bank)

• Loan products as per stage of growth: – Shishu (50k) – Kishore (50k to 500k) – Tarun (500k to 1000k)

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• Every bank branch has to give a loan between Rs. 1 Lakh to 1 Crore to at least: – One SC or ST borrower – One woman borrower

• Loan is for setting up a Greenfield enterprise in manufacturing, services or trading sector

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• Also called National Mission for Financial Inclusion

• To ensure access to following financial services:

– Banking/ Savings & Deposit Accounts

– Remittance

– Credit

– Insurance

– Pension

• About 32 Crore bank accounts opened as on July 2018

Q3. How has education brought about a social change amongst SCs and STs?

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• GER in higher education of SC/STs has witnessed tremendous improvement

• Reservation policy has led to emergence of ‘new’ educated middle class among SC/STs

• More SC/ST professionals going abroad for higher education and employment and setting up diasporic groups

• This has resulted in re-structuring of middle class and occupational profile of these castes to an extent 2005-06 2014-15 SC 8.4% 19.1% ST 6.6% 13.7% Overa ll 11.6% 24.3%

Point of concern

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• Most Group IV jobs are populated by SC/STs thus reproducing hierarchical pyramid in modern secular occupations

• In both higher education and employment, private sector is increasingly occupying more space thus constraining access

• Gender parity remains a serious issue though urban women fare much better than their rural counterparts

• Atrocities and discrimination continue to come to light even today

Q4. Discuss the role of Panchayati Raj Institutions in political empowerment of weaker sections?

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Constitutional Provisions

• 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act provides: – At all levels, seats shall be reserved for SC/STs according to their population and of those, 1/3rd to be reserved for women – Reservation for the post of Chairperson would be decided by State Legislature

• Result => – political voice to the marginalized => political empowerment – enhanced social status => social empowerment

Challenges

• Power struggles: – State vs. Panchayats for functions/funds – Traditional dominant powers vs. new leadership from marginalized groups

• Males acting as proxies for women members

• Continued incidents of caste-based violence

Q5. What are the provisions for social justice in the Indian Constitution?

Mains Question: Why are the tribals in India referred to as the Scheduled Tribes?

Indicate the major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of India for their upliftment. (GS 1, CSE2016)

• Must read Page 45, 46, 47 of the issue

Summary

• Government has undertaken several initiatives for upliftment of weaker sections but following challenges remain:

– Vote bank and divisive politics

– Proper implementation of Schemes

– Discrimination mindset within Public Institutions

Free PDF Download – Yojana Magazine

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