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Wetlands in India – Number of wetlands in india – Static GK – Free PDF Download

Wetland:

  • Marsh, fen, peat land or water Natural or Artificial permanent or temporary static or flowing, fresh, brackish  or salt( including areas of marine water)
  • Definition according to Govt. of India:  Does not include river channel, paddy field, Other areas where commercial activity takes place.
  • Wetland is like transition
  • wetlands must have 1 or more of 3 attributes:
  1. At least periodically , the land supports predominantly hydrophytes
  2. The substrate is predominantly undrained hydric soil
  3. The substrate is non soil and is saturate with water or covered by shallow water at sometime during growing season of each year
  • National Wetland Inventory and Assessment 4.63% of total geographical area

Importance:

  1. amongst the world’s most economically valuable ecosystem
  2. Disappearing 3 times faster than forests
  3. Carbon dense ecosystem
  4. Mitigate floods, protect coast lines
  5. Vital source of food, genetic resources of medicines, tourism

Reasons behind losses:

  1. Climate Change
  2. Over population
  3. Urbanization
  4. Pollution
  5. Presence of invasive species

International Initiatives:

  1. Ramsar Convention: Ramsar site

Wetland of Int. Importance

  • The Montreux Record: register of wetland sites on the list of wetlands of int. importance
  • These sites are considered at risk due to tech.Development, pollution, other human interference.
  • These are sites where changes in ecological Character have occurred, occurring or are Likely to occur.

Deletion/Restrict can be done on the basis of Urgent national interest.

Wise use of Wetlands:

  • Contracting parties commit to work towards Wise use of all the wetlands and water resources.
  • Deletion/Restrict can be done on the basis of Urgent national interest.

Wetland International:

  • NGO
  • Works to sustain and restore wetlands and their resources for people and biodiversity
  • Medium: national plans, policies, legislation,Management action, public education.

Wetland International:

  • NGO
  • Works to sustain and restore wetlands and their resources for people and biodiversity

Initiatives at India level:

  • NPCA: NWCP + NLCP
  • Responsibility of Central Govt.
  • State Wetland Authority
  • Wetland Conservation and Management Rules 2010: Notified by MoEF
  • Central Wetland Regulatory Authority

Wetland Conservation and Management Rules 2017:

  • Decentralization of wetland management
  • National Wetlands Committee

National Decadal Wetlands Change Atlas:

  1. Natural coastal Wetland
  2. Mangrove
  3. Creek
  4. Coral reef
  5. Human made wetland
  • Some important Facts: India’s largest wetland Shortest Wetland State having max. wetlands Oldest Wetlands

 

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