It inserted Articles 15(6) and 16(6) in the Constitution to provide up to 10 per cent reservation to the economically weaker sections (EWS) among non-OBC and non-SC/ST sections of the population.

Violation of Basic structure: EWS reservation violated the basic structure of the Constitution as it reserved seats solely on the basis of economic backwardness rather than social and educational backwardness.

Use of economic backwardness criterion: Economic criterion was provided for this new category of affirmative action. Better Targeting: Individuals rather than group became the basis of backwardness.