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Warmer Winter In India (Effects Of EI Nino & La Nina) – Free PDF Download


  • It’s too early to call it a summer but some places in India are already on the boil. Angul and Bhubaneswar in Odisha, for example, crossed the 40 degree Celsius mark in February 2021. Mountain states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh experienced temperatures higher than normal even in January — the time of the year usually characterised by biting cold.
  • The maximum temperatures soared 5-7 °C above the normal in Odisha, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand on January 9, according to data from the India Meteorological Department (IMD).
  • On January 10, the minimum temperatures were even more anomalous with large parts of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand and Maharashtra, where night-time temperatures were at least 5°C or more above the average.
  • The IMD, in a March 1 press release, said most of the north, north-west and north-east India, along with a few parts of central India and coastal areas of north Peninsular India, may experience above normal day-time temperatures from March till May.
  • The overarching question is: What disrupted the weather pattern?
  • The La Niña years may be getting warmer than El Niño events of the past, experts have pointed out.

WHAT IS EL nino, LA Nina, ENSO?

  • El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregular periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting the climate of much of the tropics and subtropics. The warming phase of the sea temperature is known as El Niño and the cooling phase as La Niña. The Southern Oscillation is the accompanying atmospheric component, coupled with the sea temperature change: El Niño is accompanied by high air surface pressure in the tropical western Pacific and La Niña with low air surface pressure there

  • February 2021 was the warmest month in the recorded history is proof enough, Koll said.
  • He added that 2020 was one of the warmest years despite a La Niña with cool waters in the east Pacific. “The same was observed from January to February, when La Niña was fading from the Pacific. La Niña typically has a cooling effect on global temperatures, but this is now offset by global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions.”
  • La Niña is the cooling phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation cycle in the equatorial Pacific Ocean; El Niño, on the contrary, is the warming phase. It is characterised by the unusual cooling of the central and east-central equatorial Pacific Ocean. It usually brings in colder than normal winters in India.
  • The current La Niña conditions commenced in October 2020, but have not led to much cooling over India. The IMD has predicted that the moderate La Niña conditions over the equatorial Pacific Ocean will continue through May



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