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UPSC Prelims News 8th September 2022

 

UPSC Prelims News of 8th September 2022

 

Legionellosis

Context: Argentina has identified Legionellosis as the reason behind mysterious pneumonia outbreak in the country.

About Legionellosis:

  • Pathogen: It is caused by bacteria known as Legionella that can cause infection in the lungs
  • Symptoms: Fever, mild cough, loss of appetite, headache, malaise and lethargy along with muscle pain, diarrhea and confusion.
  • Sources: Air conditioning, industrial cooling, hot and cold water systems, humidifiers, and whirlpool spas are some sources of bacteria.
  • Transmission: The disease typically spreads through inhalation of contaminated aerosols from contaminated water. Direct human-to-human transmission of this disease is yet to be reported.
  • Treatment: Treatment for the infection includes the administration of antibiotics for several weeks or months.
  • Mortality: Mortality depends on severity of infection and also the use of antibiotic treatment.
  • In an untreated immune-suppressed patient, the mortality rate can be as high as 40-80 per cent.

 

JEEViKA

Context: Bihar government is preparing a plan to make glass bangles out of seized liquor bottles through its JEEViKA programme.

  • About: JEEViKA programme is a World Bank funded, rural social empowerment programme implemented through the Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS), an autonomous body under the Department of Rural Development of Bihar.
  • Aim: The programme is aimed at reducing poverty by enabling the poor households to access gainful self-employment and skilled wage employment opportunities, resulting in appreciable improvement in their livelihoods on a sustainable basis, through building strong grassroots institutions of the poor.
  • Four pillars of the programme: It stands on the four pillars of NRLM (National Rural Livelihood Mission) i.e.
    • Social mobilization
    • Financial inclusion
    • Vulnerability reduction combined with livelihoods enhancement
    • Sensitive and dedicated support structure to in place.
  • Additional component: The Livelihoods Restoration and Enhancement component of Bihar Kosi Flood Recovery Project (BKFRP) was also taken into the fold of JEEViKA.
  • Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS): As a first step in the implementation of central government’s NRLM in the state, Government of Bihar has designated BRLPS as the State Rural Livelihoods Mission (SRLM) for implementation of NRLM in the state.

 

Nord Stream-1

Context: Russia has halted supply of gas to Europe via Nord Stream-1 pipeline.

About Nord Stream-1

  • Location: The Nord Stream 1 pipeline stretches 1,200km from the Russian coast near St Petersburg to north-eastern Germany, under the Baltic Sea.
  • Capacity: The pipeline can send a maximum of 170m cubic metres of gas per day from Russia to Germany.
  • It accounts for about 35% of Europe’s total Russian gas imports.
  • Operator: The pipeline is owned and operated by Nord Stream AG, which is majorly owned by Russian state-owned company Gazprom.
Nord Stream 1 Pipeline
Nord Stream 1 Pipeline
  • Reasons for halting supply: Leakage in the turbine has been the reason given for shutdown of Nord Stream-1.
  • European countries have accused Russia of using gas supply as a weapon. Russia may be deliberately halting supply to put pressure on Western adversaries.
  • Consequences of Halting Gas Supply:
  • Rise in prices: Restricted gas supply has pushed up the wholesale price of gas in Europe by 10%.  Inflation has hit countries such as Germany.
  • Economic recession: Any future restrictions in gas supply can push Europe towards recession.
  • Coal power: Germany is increasing use of coal and extending the life of power stations. It is also promoting solar energy.
  • Alternative pipeline: Germany has approved the construction of a parallel pipeline – Nord Stream 2, which has been halted.

 

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