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UPSC Prelims News 7th September 2022


UPSC Prelims News of 7th September 2022


Einstein Ring

Context: The James Webb Space Telescope has captured an image of an almost perfect “Einstein ring.”

What is Einstein Ring?

  • An Einstein ring, also known as an Einstein–Chwolson ring is created when light from a galaxy or star passes by a massive object en route to the Earth.
  • Due to gravitational lensing, the light is diverted, making it seem to come from different places.
  • If source, lens, and observer are all in perfect alignment, the light appears as a ring.
  • This image by James Webb Telescope was formed from the light of a distant galaxy SPT-S J041839-4751.8, which is around 12 billion light-years away from Earth, which also makes it one of the oldest galaxies in the universe.
Einstein Ring
Einstein Ring

Gravitational Lensing:

  • A gravitational lens can occur when a huge amount of matter, like a cluster of galaxies, creates a gravitational field that distorts and magnifies the light from distant galaxies that are behind it but in the same line of sight.
  • The effect is like looking through a giant magnifying glass. It allows researchers to study the details of early galaxies too far away to be seen with current technology and telescopes.
  • Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, published in 1916, predicted that massive objects, such as stars, could bend light rays passing nearby.
Gravitational Lensing
Gravitational Lensing

African Cheetah

Kuno Palpur National Park:

  • It is located in the Chambal region (Sheopur and Morena districts) of Madhya Pradesh. The Kuno river, a tributary of Chambal, flows through the park.
    • The people belonging to the Saharia tribe were the original inhabitants of the region.
  • The National Park predominantly consists of grasslands and sparse forests that host many herbivore species.
  • The park also hosts vulture species such as Red-headed, White-rumped, Indian, Egyptian and the migratory Eurasian Griffon Vulture.
African Cheetah
African Cheetah

About the event:

  • The Cheetah reintroduction programme includes release of African Cheetahs from Namibia in Kuno Palpur National Park.
  • The reintroduction plan has been delayed ranging from the animal’s enclosures not being fully readied, to non-completion of diplomatic formalities involving South Africa and India.

African Cheetah:

  • Habitat: African cheetah usually lives on grasslands, savannahs, scrub forests, and arid environments such as deserts and semi-desert steppes of the continent.
    • Namibia has the largest population of wild cheetahs worldwide, followed by Botswana.
  • Protection status: It is listed as a vulnerable (VU) species on the IUCN Red List.
    • CITES: Appendix-I
  • Ecological role: As a predator species, it controls the number of herbivores in their ecosystem.
  • In absence of cheetahs, these herbivores grow uncontrollably. This can lead to problems such as overgrazing.
    • Threats: Cheetahs are vulnerable to poaching, especially trophy hunting.
  • Inbreeding and loss of ecology are emerging threats to their population.


Longwa Village

Context: The residents of Longwa village in Nagaland enjoy dual citizenship.

About Longwa Village:

  • Longwa is located in Mon district of Nagaland.  It is situated on the international boundary line between India and Myanmar. The residents enjoy citizenship of India and Myanmar.
  • The village is home to the Konyak tribe. Members of this tribe used to be head-hunters until the 1960s.

Konyak Tribe:

  • Konyaks are known as the Wanchos in Arunachal Pradesh, which is synonymous with Konyak.
  • Konyaks can be grouped into two groups, namely ‘Thendu’, which means the ‘Tattooed Face’ and ‘Thentho’, meaning the ‘White face’.
  • The Konyaks sported tattoos on their face and other body parts which signified their tribe, clan, and status in society.
    • They have a large collection of rival human skulls, which they believe to bring prosperity to the clan and village.
  • Konyaks are also skilled artists, especially in the art of making firearms and handicrafts like basket making, bamboo works and weaving.
  • Festivals:  Aonyimo is celebrated in July or August after the harvest of the first crops.
    • The Laoun-ongmo is thanks-giving festival and is celebrated after completion of all agricultural activities.
  • Administration: Konyaks follow the practice of the Angh (king) system.
  • The Anghha and the village council consisting of an elder take care of the village administration.


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