UPSC Prelims News of 30 November 2022
Context: The WHO has renamed monkeypox as mpox, citing racial concerns about the original name.
About Monkeypox (mpox):
- Pathogen: Monkey pox disease is similar to smallpox. It is caused by orthopoxvirus, which is a genus of viruses that also includes the variola virus.
- Prevalence: Monkeypox occurs in countries in Central and West Africa. The disease is prevalent across countries such as DRC, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Cameroon, Nigeria, Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
- Origin: The first case of human infection was recorded in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
- Transmission: Monkeypox disease is transmitted from animal to human. The infection has been detected in squirrels, rats, and some species of monkeys.
- Human to human transmission is very rare. It usually spreads through contact with bodily fluids, lesions on the skin, respiratory droplets and contaminated objects.
- Symptoms: Fever, headache, muscle aches, back ache, and exhaustion. It causes swelling in lymph nodes. Rash starts on the face and spreads to other parts of the body.
- Mortality: Percentage of people dying from disease has varied between 0 and 11% in documented cases. It is higher among young children.
- Treatment: There is no specific treatment. Supportive treatments have to be provided depending on the symptoms.
India’s First Private Launchpad
Context: Chennai-based private space-tech start-up, Agnikul Cosmos, has set up India’s first-ever private launchpad at Sriharikota.
More on the News:
- The launchpad facility was designed by Agnikul and built in collaboration with ISRO and IN-SPACe (Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Center).
- The facility has two sections: the AgniKul launchpad (ALP) and the AgniKul mission control center (AMCC).
- Use of the facility:
- AgniKul’s first launch will be a controlled and guided mission, vertical launch using a patented engine. The mission will be a technology demonstrator.
- The company will use Agnibaan, which is a highly customizable two-stage rocket, capable of carrying payloads of up to 100 kg in orbit (low-Earth orbit) at an altitude of approximately 700 km.
- Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre (IN-SPACe) is as an independent agency that acts as an interface between ISRO and the private space sector in India.
- IN-SPACe is responsible to promote, enable authorize and supervise various space activities of the private sector in India.
Harimau Shakti 2022
Context: India–Malaysia joint military exercise “Harimau Shakti 2022” commenced at Pulai, Kluang, Malaysia.
About Harimau Shakti 2022 Exercise:
- It is an annual training exercise between the Indian and Malaysian Army.
- Combat-experienced troops of the Garhwal Rifles Regiment of the Indian Army and the Royal Malay Regiment of the Malaysian Army are participating in the exercise.
- Focus: To enhance inter-operability in planning and execution of various operations in jungle terrain.
- Scope: Involves a Command Planning Exercise (CPX) at the Battalion level and Company level Field Training Exercise (FTX) on sub-conventional operations.
- Other Exercise
- Joint Naval Exercise: Samudra Laksamana.
- Joint Air Exercise: Udara Shakti
- Significance: These exercises strengthen long-standing friendships and enhance defence cooperation.
India and Malaysia
- Malaysia is one of the most important countries for India’s Look East and Act East Policy.
- Around 7.2% of the population of Malaysia is of Indian origin.
- The two countries have close political, economic and socio-cultural relations.
UNESCO Asia-Pacific Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation 2022
Context: The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Asia-Pacific Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation 2022 have been announced which included four winners from India.
The list of 2022 awarded projects from India:
- Award of Excellence: Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya, Mumbai
- Award of Distinction: Stepwells of Golconda, Hyderabad
- Award of Merit: Domakonda Fort, Telangana, and Byculla Station, Mumbai
What is UNESCO Asia-Pacific Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation?
- Since 2000, the UNESCO Asia-Pacific Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation programme has recognized the efforts of private individuals and organizations in restoring, conserving and transforming structures and buildings of heritage value in the region.
- By acknowledging private efforts to restore and adapt historic properties, the Awards encourage others to undertake conservation projects within their own communities, either independently or through public-private partnerships (PPPs).
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya, Mumbai:
- The museum is a part of the Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai’s world heritage property.
- It was established as the Prince of Wales Museum of Western India in 1922.
Domakonda Fort, Telangana:
- The Domakonda Fort is private property and was built in the 18th century with an amalgam of styles including stucco work, arched pillars, flat ceiling, and a courtyard with a water garden pond.
Byculla Station, Mumbai:
- The station was built in 1853. The first train of the country passed through Byculla station almost one-and-a-half centuries ago.
- It has been restored to its original Gothic, heritage, architectural glory.