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UPSC Prelims News 29 November 2022

UPSC Prelims News of 29 November 2022

Austra Hind

Context: Bilateral training exercise between the armies of India and Australia, called Austra Hind, began in Rajasthan’s Mahajan Field Firing Ranges.

About Austra Hind:

  • Austra Hind will be a yearly event held alternately in India and Australia. This is the first exercise in the AUSTRA HIND series of exercise, with all arms and services contingents from both armies participating.
  • Objective: The exercise aims to build positive military relations, inculcate each other’s best practices and enhance the ability to operate together while undertaking multi-domain operations in semi-desert terrain under a UN peace enforcement mandate.
  • Activities: Training on new generation equipment and specialist weapons, such as snipers, surveillance and communication equipment for a high level of situational awareness, as well as casualty management, evacuation, and planning logistics will take place.
  • Significance: Apart from promoting understanding and interoperability between the two armies, the exercise will further help in strengthening ties between India and Australia.

UPSC Prelims News 28 November 2022

 

Black Corals

Context: Scientists have discovered five new species of black corals near the Great Barrier Reef.

More on the News:

  • This is for the first time that researchers used robot to collect black coral specimen. Previously, dredging method was used to collect samples.
  • Scientists examined the physical features of the corals and sequenced their DNA to discover five new species.
Black Corals:
Black Corals:

Black Corals:

  • Habitat: Black corals can be found growing both in shallow waters and deep waters. Some individual corals can survive for over 4,000 years.
  • Physical appearance: Many of these corals are branched and look like feathers, fans or bushes, while others are straight like a whip.
  • Feeding pattern: Unlike the shallow-water corals that rely on the sun and photosynthesis for energy, black corals are filter feeders and consume tiny zooplankton that are abundant in deep waters.
  • Significance: Similarly to shallow-water corals, black corals act as important habitats where fish and invertebrates feed and hide from predators.

 

Bluebugging

Context: Cybersecurity experts note that apps that let users connect smartphones or laptops to wireless earplugs can record conversations, and are vulnerable to hacks, through a process called bluebugging.

About Bluebugging:

  • It is a form of hacking that lets attackers access a device through its discoverable Bluetooth connection.
  • Once a device or phone is bluebugged, a hacker can listen to the calls, read and send messages and steal and modify contacts.

How does Bluebugging hack devices?

  • Several smartphones have their Bluetooth settings on discovery mode as it is a default setting, making it easy for hackers to access the phones when they are within 10 metres from the device.
  • Once a connection is established, hackers can use brute force attacks to bypass authentication.
  • They can install malware in the compromised device to gain unauthorized access to it.

How to prevent bluebugging?

  • Turning off Bluetooth and disconnecting paired Bluetooth devices when not in use.
  • Updating the device’s system software to the latest version.
  • Limiting the use of public Wi-Fi.
  • Using VPN as an additional security measure.
  • Modern anti-virus softwares can also help thwart such attacks.

 

Mt Shiveluch

Context: The Shiveluch volcano in Russia’s far eastern Kamchatka peninsula may be gearing up for its first powerful eruption in 15 years.

The Shiveluch Volcano:

  • It is one of the largest and most active volcanoes in Kamchatka, having erupted at least 60 times in the past 10,000 years.
  • Type: It is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava and volcanic rocks.
  • It has two main parts:
    • Old Shiveluch, which tops 3,283 metres (10,771 ft), and
    • Young Shiveluch – a smaller, 2,800-metre peak protruding from its side.

Kamchatka Peninsula:

  • It is a 1,250km-long peninsula in the Russian Far East.
  • The Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsk make up the peninsula’s eastern and western coastlines, respectively.
  • Kamchatka is home to 29 active volcanoes, part of a vast belt of Earth known as the “Ring of Fire”.
Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula

The Ring of Fire:

  • The Ring of Fire, also referred to as the Circum-Pacific Belt, is a path along the Pacific Ocean characterized by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes.
  • Roughly 90% of all earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire, and the ring is dotted with 75% of all active volcanoes on Earth.
  • Many volcanoes in the Ring of Fire were created through a process of subduction.

UPSC Mains Result 2022

 

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