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UPSC Prelims News 27 September 2022


UPSC Prelims News of 27th September 2022

Operation Megh Chakra

Context: The CBI carried out an operation code-named “Megh Chakra”, across the country.

About the operation:

  • The operation was against the circulation and sharing of Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM).
    • CSAM: It refers to possession, viewing, sharing, and creation of images or videos containing sexual or offensive material involving children.
  • The operation was based on the inputs received from Interpol’s Singapore special unit based on the information received from the authorities in New Zealand.
  • The code name was ‘Megh chakra’ as the operation was targeted at cloud storage facilities used by peddlers to circulate content of illicit sexual activities with minors.
  • A similar exercise code named “Operation Carbon” was carried out by CBI in November 2021.


  • Interpol is the world’s largest police organization that assists law enforcement agencies in each of its 195 member countries to combat all forms of crimes.
  • India is a member of Interpol since 1956. India maintains a National Central Bureau which acts as the national platform for cooperation between domestic law enforcement agencies and the international police community.

UPSC Prelims News of 26 September 2022

Tamirapani River

Context: Researchers from Ashoka Trust for Research and the Environment (ATREE) have initiated the restoration of the Tamirapani river.

About the river:

  • It is also known as Thamirabarani or Porunai. It is the only perennial river in Tamil Nadu.
  • Origin: Tamirapani originates from the Pothigai hills of the Western Ghats in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu.
  • It flows through Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi districts of the Tamil Nadu into the Gulf of Mannar.
  • Tributaries: Servalar, Manimuthar, Karaiyar, Gadana nadhi, Pachaiar and Chittar are the major tributaries.
  • Importance of conservation:
    • Fauna: Wildlife such as Nilgiri marten, slender loris, lion-tailed macaque, white-spotted bush frog, Sri Lankan Atlas moth, and the great hornbill are supported by the river.
    • Human civilization: Tamirapani river was the cradle of the earliest humans in India over 3,200 years ago.
    • Water needs: Tamirapani is the primary source of water for many towns in the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu.
  • Threats faced:
    • Reduced ecological flows downstream due to agriculture, domestic water and industry needs.
    • Water quality degradation due to addition of untreated domestic, agricultural, and industrial waste.



Context: WHO announced that Malawi has become the first country in southern Africa to eliminate trachoma.

About Trachoma



  • A bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis causes the infection.


  • Early stages of trachoma cause conjunctivitis (pink eye).
  • These symptoms can include:
  • Mild itching and irritation of the eyes and eyelids, and
  • A discharge from the eyes
  • Further progress causes eye pain and blurred vision.


  • Trachoma is an infection affecting eyes. It is the leading cause of infectious blindness in the world.
  • Advanced infection causes scarring inside the eyelid. This leads to the eyelashes brushing and scratching against the cornea.
  • This can lead to the development of corneal ulcers and vision loss.


  • The disease is prevalent in areas where there are water shortages, poor sanitation and infestations of flies.
  • The infection spreads by direct contact with someone infected with the bacteria; insects like flies; contaminated objects like towels.


  • Antibiotics are used to treat early cases of trachoma. Early treatment can prevent long-term blindness.


Ambedkar Circuit

Context: The Central government announced a special tourist circuit named Ambedkar circuit.

  • It will cover five key sites associated with Dr B.R. Ambedkar.
  1. Janma Bhoomi- Ambedkar’s birthplace in Madhya Pradesh’s Mhow.
  2. Shiksha Bhoomi- the place in London where he stayed while studying in the UK.
  3. Deeksha Bhoomi- the place in Nagpur where he embraced Buddhism.
  4. Mahaparinirvan Bhoomi- the place of his demise in Delhi.
  5. Chaitya Bhoomi- the place of his cremation is in Mumbai.

Tourist Circuits

  • Government had identified 15 tourist circuits under the Swadesh Darshan scheme in 2014-15.
  • Ramayana and Buddhist Circuits, Coastal Circuit, Desert Circuit, Eco Circuit, Heritage, North East, Himalayan, Sufi, Krishna, Rural, Tribal, and Tirthankar Circuits.
  • Government had first proposed the Ambedkar Circuit, or Panchteerth, in 2016.
  • Aim: To attract tourists beyond the Dalit community, who mostly visit these places as a pilgrimage.


Surjapuri and Bajjika Dialect

Context: The Bihar government has decided to set up two new academies to promote local dialects — Surjapuri and Bajjika

About the Initiative

  • It is aimed at protecting indigenous language and culture,
  • It will be set up on the lines of eight already existing centres, constituted for the promotion of other dialects.
  • Eight already existing language academies are Bihar Hindi Granth Academy, Maithili academy, Magahi Academy, Bangla Academy, Sanskrit Academy, Bhojpuri Academy, Angika Academy and South Indian languages organization.

About Dialect

  • Surjapuri: It is a mix of Hindi, Maithili and Bangla, is spoken in the Seemanchal region — comprising Purnia, Katihar, Kishanganj and Arararia districts.
    • Largest share of speakers of the language is made up of Surjapuri Muslims, who live mainly in Kishanganj, the district that has about 70 per cent Muslim population.
    • According to 2011 Census, the total number of Surjapuri-speaking population in Bihar stood at 18,57,930.
  • Bajjika: It is similar to Maithili, is the language of people living in north-west Bihar areas of Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, West Champaran and Sheohar.
    • An estimate based on 2001 census data suggests that 20 million Bajjika speakers resided in Bihar at that time.
Surjapuri and Bajjika Dialect
Surjapuri and Bajjika Dialect


Context: JALDOOT App will be launched by the Union Minister of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj.


  • Objective: Measurement and assessment of the levels of ground water table across the country.

How it works?

  • The app will be used across the country to capture the water level of selected wells in a village.
  • It will enable Gram Rojgar Sahayak (GRS) to measure the water level of selected wells twice a year (pre-monsoon and post-monsoon).
  • In every village, adequate number of measurement locations (2-3) shall need to be selected. These will be representative of the ground water level in that village.


  • The app will facilitate Panchayats with robust data, which can be further used for better planning of works.
  • The ground water data could be utilized as part of the Gram Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP) and Mahatma Gandhi NREGA planning exercises.
  • Further, the data can also be used for different kinds of research and other purposes.

UPSC Prelims News of 28 September 2022

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