UPSC Prelims News of 27th September 2022
Operation Megh Chakra
Context: The CBI carried out an operation code-named “Megh Chakra”, across the country.
About the operation:
- The operation was against the circulation and sharing of Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM).
- CSAM: It refers to possession, viewing, sharing, and creation of images or videos containing sexual or offensive material involving children.
- The operation was based on the inputs received from Interpol’s Singapore special unit based on the information received from the authorities in New Zealand.
- The code name was ‘Megh chakra’ as the operation was targeted at cloud storage facilities used by peddlers to circulate content of illicit sexual activities with minors.
- A similar exercise code named “Operation Carbon” was carried out by CBI in November 2021.
- Interpol is the world’s largest police organization that assists law enforcement agencies in each of its 195 member countries to combat all forms of crimes.
- India is a member of Interpol since 1956. India maintains a National Central Bureau which acts as the national platform for cooperation between domestic law enforcement agencies and the international police community.
Context: Researchers from Ashoka Trust for Research and the Environment (ATREE) have initiated the restoration of the Tamirapani river.
About the river:
- It is also known as Thamirabarani or Porunai. It is the only perennial river in Tamil Nadu.
- Origin: Tamirapani originates from the Pothigai hills of the Western Ghats in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu.
- It flows through Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi districts of the Tamil Nadu into the Gulf of Mannar.
- Tributaries: Servalar, Manimuthar, Karaiyar, Gadana nadhi, Pachaiar and Chittar are the major tributaries.
- Importance of conservation:
- Fauna: Wildlife such as Nilgiri marten, slender loris, lion-tailed macaque, white-spotted bush frog, Sri Lankan Atlas moth, and the great hornbill are supported by the river.
- Human civilization: Tamirapani river was the cradle of the earliest humans in India over 3,200 years ago.
- Water needs: Tamirapani is the primary source of water for many towns in the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu.
- Threats faced:
- Reduced ecological flows downstream due to agriculture, domestic water and industry needs.
- Water quality degradation due to addition of untreated domestic, agricultural, and industrial waste.
Context: WHO announced that Malawi has become the first country in southern Africa to eliminate trachoma.
Context: The Central government announced a special tourist circuit named Ambedkar circuit.
- It will cover five key sites associated with Dr B.R. Ambedkar.
- Janma Bhoomi- Ambedkar’s birthplace in Madhya Pradesh’s Mhow.
- Shiksha Bhoomi- the place in London where he stayed while studying in the UK.
- Deeksha Bhoomi- the place in Nagpur where he embraced Buddhism.
- Mahaparinirvan Bhoomi- the place of his demise in Delhi.
- Chaitya Bhoomi- the place of his cremation is in Mumbai.
- Government had identified 15 tourist circuits under the Swadesh Darshan scheme in 2014-15.
- Ramayana and Buddhist Circuits, Coastal Circuit, Desert Circuit, Eco Circuit, Heritage, North East, Himalayan, Sufi, Krishna, Rural, Tribal, and Tirthankar Circuits.
- Government had first proposed the Ambedkar Circuit, or Panchteerth, in 2016.
- Aim: To attract tourists beyond the Dalit community, who mostly visit these places as a pilgrimage.
Surjapuri and Bajjika Dialect
Context: The Bihar government has decided to set up two new academies to promote local dialects — Surjapuri and Bajjika
About the Initiative
- It is aimed at protecting indigenous language and culture,
- It will be set up on the lines of eight already existing centres, constituted for the promotion of other dialects.
- Eight already existing language academies are Bihar Hindi Granth Academy, Maithili academy, Magahi Academy, Bangla Academy, Sanskrit Academy, Bhojpuri Academy, Angika Academy and South Indian languages organization.
- Surjapuri: It is a mix of Hindi, Maithili and Bangla, is spoken in the Seemanchal region — comprising Purnia, Katihar, Kishanganj and Arararia districts.
- Largest share of speakers of the language is made up of Surjapuri Muslims, who live mainly in Kishanganj, the district that has about 70 per cent Muslim population.
- According to 2011 Census, the total number of Surjapuri-speaking population in Bihar stood at 18,57,930.
- Bajjika: It is similar to Maithili, is the language of people living in north-west Bihar areas of Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, West Champaran and Sheohar.
- An estimate based on 2001 census data suggests that 20 million Bajjika speakers resided in Bihar at that time.
Context: JALDOOT App will be launched by the Union Minister of Rural Development and Panchayati Raj.
About JALDOOT App
- Objective: Measurement and assessment of the levels of ground water table across the country.
How it works?
- The app will be used across the country to capture the water level of selected wells in a village.
- It will enable Gram Rojgar Sahayak (GRS) to measure the water level of selected wells twice a year (pre-monsoon and post-monsoon).
- In every village, adequate number of measurement locations (2-3) shall need to be selected. These will be representative of the ground water level in that village.
- The app will facilitate Panchayats with robust data, which can be further used for better planning of works.
- The ground water data could be utilized as part of the Gram Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP) and Mahatma Gandhi NREGA planning exercises.
- Further, the data can also be used for different kinds of research and other purposes.