UPSC Prelims News of 26 November 2022
World’s Costliest Drug
- Hemgenix is a hemophilia B gene therapy that is administered only once that frees patients from regular treatments.
- Working of the drug: Traditional treatment for hemophilia involves infusing missing proteins, called clotting factors that the body requires to form clots and stop bleeding.
- Hemgenix works by providing a gene that can produce the missing clotting factors into the liver, where it starts working to make the Factor IX protein.
- Success of the drug: Hemgenix has been successful in cutting the number of bleeding events expected over the course of a year by 54%.
- It also freed 94% of patients from time-consuming and costly infusions of Factor IX, the existing method of treatment.
- Hemophilia is a genetic disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. This can result in spontaneous bleeding as well as bleeding after injuries or surgery.
- Cause: Hemophilia is caused by a mutation in one of the genes that gives instructions for making the clotting factor proteins needed to form a blood clot.
- Hemophilia is a sex linked disorder. The X and Y sex chromosomes determine hemophilia inheritance patterns in offspring. The gene for hemophilia is carried on the X chromosome.
Kuki-Chin National Army
About Kuki-Chin National Army (KNA):
- KNA is the armed wing of the Kuki-Chin National Front (KNF), an ethnic separatist organisation that claims to represent the interests of the Kuki-Chin-Mizo communities living in the area.
- The KNF emerged around 2008, with the demand of a separate state in the CHT.
- The KNF claims all members of the Bawm, Pungkhua, Lushai, Khumi, Mro, and Khyang ethnic groups belong to a greater Kuki-Chin race.
India’s Refugee Policy Status
- India is not a signatory to the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention or its 1962 Protocol, and does not have a domestic policy on refugees.
About Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT):
- CHT is an impoverished hilly, forested area that sprawls over Khagrachari, Rangamati, and Bandarban districts of south-eastern Bangladesh, bordering Mizoram to the east, Tripura to the north, and Myanmar to the south and southeast.
- A significant portion of the population is tribal, and culturally and ethnically different from the majority Muslim Bangladeshis who live in the country’s deltaic mainland.
- The tribal population of the CHT has ethnic links with tribal populations in the adjacent areas of India, mainly in Mizoram.
- Mizoram shares a 318-km-long border with Bangladesh.
Guru Tegh Bahadur
About Guru Tegh Bahadur:
- Birth: Guru Tegh Bahadur was born in Amritsar on April 21, 1621, to Mata Nanki and Guru Hargobind.
- Guru Hargobind was the sixth Sikh guru, who raised an army against the Mughals and introduced the concept of warrior saints.
- Important contributions:
- Became the ninth Sikh Guru after the eight guru, Guru HarKrishan (1656-1664) and was followed by the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708).
- He resisted forced conversions of non-Muslims to Islam during Aurangzeb’s rule.
- Contributed many hymns to the Guru Granth Sahib including the Saloks, or couplets.
- He had set up community kitchens and wells for the local people wherever he went.
- Founded the town of Chak-Nanki in Punjab, which later became a part of Anandpur Sahib, a famous holy city and a global tourist attraction in the foothills of the Himalayas.
- Martyrdom: He was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi.