Home   »   Latest News   »   UPSC Prelims News 2022

UPSC Prelims News 22nd September 2022


UPSC Prelims News of 22nd September 2022


  • Context: To control stubble burning and reduce air pollution during winter, the Delhi government will spray a bio-decomposer free of cost over 5,000 acres of paddy fields in the city this year.
  • Need: In every winter season, air pollution spikes in Delhi and adjoining areas due to slow wind speed, bursting of firecrackers and pollution from stubble burning.
  • About Bio-decomposer: It is composed of a group of beneficial micro-organisms, which rapidly convert crop residues, animal waste, dung and other waste into organic manure.
    • A bio-decomposer capsule, developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, turns into a solution through a week-long process, after which it decomposes straw and stubble into manure.

UPSC Prelims News of 21st September 2022

India Hypertension Control Initiative (IHCI)

Context: India has won ‘2022 UN Interagency Task Force and WHO Special Programme on Primary Health Care Award’ for its ‘India Hypertension Control Initiative’.

India Hypertension Control Initiative (IHCI)

  • About
    • It is a multi-partner initiative involving the Indian Council of Medical Research, WHO-India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and State governments to improve blood pressure control for people with hypertension.
    • The project initiated in 26 districts in 2018 has expanded to more than 100 districts by 2022.
  • Key features
    • Treatment protocols that simplify quality patient care in primary care facilities.
    • Provision of adequate supply of quality medicines and blood pressure monitors.
    • Comprehensive training for healthcare workers at all levels on latest practices in hypertension treatment.
    • Team-based care for counseling and follow up of the patients.
  • Prevalence of Hypertension in India
    • The overall prevalence of hypertension among adults in India is about 30% with urban prevalence of 34% and rural prevalence of 28%.
    • India has set a target of 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of hypertension by 2025.

What is Hypertension?

  • Hypertension is defined as having systolic blood pressure level greater than or equal to 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure level greater than or equal to 90 mmHg.
  • Hypertension is a major cause of premature death worldwide.


India’s First Dugong Conservation Reserve

Context: Tamil Nadu notified the country’s first ‘Dugong Conservation Reserve’ in Palk Bay covering the coastal waters of Thanjavur and Pudukottai districts.

What are Dugongs?

  • About: Dugongs also called ‘Sea Cows’, are the largest herbivorous marine mammals.
  • Habitat:
    • They thrive primarily on sea grasses in shallow coastal waters of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans.
    • They are found in the waters of some 40 countries and territories throughout the Indo-West Pacific.
    • There are only about 240 individuals estimated to be present in the country and the majority is found in Tamil Nadu coast (Palk Bay).
  • Protection status
    • Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 – Schedule 1.
    • IUCN Red List – Vulnerable.
    • CITES – Appendix 1.
  • Threats
    • Habitat loss or degradation because of coastal development or industrial activities that cause water pollution.
    • Loss of seagrass beds due to ocean floor trawling.
    • Victims of bycatch, the accidental entanglement in fishing nets.
India’s First Dugong Conservation Reserve
India’s First Dugong Conservation Reserve

Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD)

Context: Mumbai Police have prohibited cattle transportation in the city to prevent the spread of the lumpy skin disease.

About the Disease:


  • The virus is shed by animals through oral and nasal secretions which may contaminate common feeding and water areas.
  • The disease can spread either through direct contact with the vectors or through contaminated fodder and water.
  • It can also spread through artificial insemination.

Protective Measures

  • Quarantining animals, sanitizing sheds and spraying insecticides to stop vectors such as mosquitoes and other insects are some of the measures.

Economic Impact

  • Reduced milk production: The disease leads to reduction in milk production as the animal becomes weak and also loses appetite due to mouth ulceration.
  • Contamination of milk: There are chances of LSDV virus in milk derived from the infected animal. However, pasteurizing or boiling ensures that the virus is inactivated or destroyed.
  • Income losses: Loss of income can be due to reduced draught power capacity, abortions, infertility and lack of semen for artificial insemination.


  • Goat pox vaccine: Goat Pox Vaccine has proved effective against LSD and is being used across affected States to contain the spread.
  • Indigenous vaccine: Institutes under Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) have developed an indigenous vaccine for LSD.
  • Experimental trials conducted on animals have revealed encouraging results.
Lumpy Skin Disease
Lumpy Skin Disease
Lumpy Skin
Lumpy Skin

UPSC Prelims News of 23 September 2022

Sharing is caring!

Download your free content now!


We have received your details!

We'll share General Studies Study Material on your E-mail Id.

Download your free content now!

We have already received your details!

We'll share General Studies Study Material on your E-mail Id.

Incorrect details? Fill the form again here

General Studies PDF

Thank You, Your details have been submitted we will get back to you.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published.