UPSC Prelims News of 22 December 2022
Purse Seine Fishing
Context: The Union government has objected to the ban imposed by certain coastal states on Purse Seine fishing.
More on the News:
- The government has argued that purse seine mode of fishing has not resulted in any serious resource depletion so far, given the available evidence.
- Ban: The fishing method is prohibited by several States and Union Territories, including Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, Odisha, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Andaman and Nicobar Islands in their respective territorial waters of up to 12 nautical miles.
- Maharashtra has imposed certain orders for regulation of purse seine fishing in its territorial waters.
- States such as Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka and West Bengal have not imposed any such ban on purse seine fishing.
About Purse Seine Fishing:
- A vertical net ‘curtain’ is used to surround the school of fish, the bottom of which is then brought together to enclose the fish, rather like tightening the cords of a drawstring purse.
- This mode of fishing uses a wide net to draw in not only the targeted fish but also at-risk varieties, including turtles.
- This form is generally considered to be an efficient fishing method. It has no contact with the seabed and can have low levels of bycatch.
Context: Union Home Minister presided over the meeting of Eastern Zonal Council in Kolkata.
About Zonal Councils:
- Zonal Councils are statutory bodies set up by an Act of the Parliament
- Origin: The five Zonal Councils were set up under States Re-organisation Act, 1956. The North Eastern Council was set up under North Eastern Council Act, 1972.
- Enabling national integration.
- Stopping the growth of acute State consciousness, regionalism, linguism and particularistic tendencies.
- Ensuring that Centre and the States co-operate and exchange ideas and experiences.
- Setting up a climate of co-operation amongst the States for successful and speedy execution of development projects.
- Chairman: The Union Home Minister is the Chairman of all zonal Councils.
- Vice Chairman: The Chief Ministers of the States in each zone act as Vice-Chairman of the Zonal Council for one year on rotation.
- Members: Chief Minister and two other Ministers as nominated by the Governor from each of the States and two members from Union Territories included in the zone.
- Union Ministers are also invited to participate in the meetings of Zonal Councils depending upon necessity
- Functions: Zonal Councils are advisory bodies that may discuss, and make recommendations regarding:
- any matter of common interest in the field of economic and social planning;
- any matter concerning border disputes, linguistic minorities or inter-State transport;
- any matter connected with or arising out of, the re-organization of the States under the States Reorganisation Act.
- Various Councils: North Eastern Council: Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Tripura and Sikkim.
Mission Amrit Sarovar
Context: The Ministry of Rural Development has increased target under Mission Amrit Sarovar
More on the News:
- The Mission Amrit Sarovar had initially planned a target to construct or rejuvenate 50,000 Amrit Sarovar ponds across India till 15th August 2023.
- Now, additional 50,000 Amrit Sarovar ponds will be constructed by 15th August 2023.
- The State Governments have identified sites for constructing Amrit Sarovar in the country.
About Mission Amrit Sarovar:
- It has been launched on 24th April 2022 with an objective to harvest and conserve water for future generation.
- Salient features:
- Ministries involved: Involves participation from the Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Jal Shakti, Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change and technical organizations.
- Participant: Every district of the country will construct or rejuvenate at least 75 Amrit Sarovars.
- Every Amrit Sarovar will have a pondage area of at least 1 acre with a water holding capacity of about 10,000 cubic metre.
- Every Amrit Sarovar will be surrounded by trees like Neem, Peepal and Banyan etc.
- Focus: It focuses on water conservation, people’s participation and proper utilization of soil excavated from the water bodies to boost infrastructural projects.
- Funding: It works through the States and Districts with convergence from various schemes such as MG NREGS, 15th Finance Commission Grants, Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sichayi Yojna sub schemes such as Watershed Development Component, Har Khet ko Pani, besides States’ own scheme.
- Public contribution like crowd funding and Corporate Social Responsibility is also allowed for the work.
Context: The fifth submarine of the Project – 75, Kalvari Class submarines, Yard 11879 was delivered to the Indian Navy.
- Project – 75 includes indigenous construction of six submarines of Scorpene design.
- These submarines are being constructed at Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL) Mumbai, under collaboration with M/s Naval Group, France.
- Launched on 12 Nov 20, Vagir commenced the sea trials from 01 Feb 22 and has completed all major trials including the weapon and sensor trials in the shortest time in comparison to the earlier submarines.
Submarines of Scorpene Design:
- These submarines have the state-of-art technology which ensures superior stealth features.
- These features are advanced acoustic absorption techniques, low radiated noise levels, and hydro-dynamically optimised shape.
- These submarines also have the ability to attack the enemy using precision guided weapons.
- These submarines can undertake missions like anti- surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, intelligence gathering, mine laying, and area surveillance.
- Vagir is named after the Sand Fish, a deadly deep sea predator of the Indian Ocean
- The introduction of the Project-75-built submarine is expected to strengthen the Indian Navy’s combat capabilities at a time when China is stepping up its footprint in the Indian Ocean region.
- Construction of these submarines in an Indian yard is another step towards ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’ and enhances self-confidence in this field.
- A notable achievement is that this is the third submarine delivered to the Indian Navy in a span of 24 months.
- The submarine would shortly be commissioned into the Indian Navy and enhance the Indian Navy’s capability.