UPSC Prelims News of 2 December 2022
Context: December 1 is designated as World AIDS day to raise awareness about AIDS.
About HIV AIDS:
- Origin: HIV infection in humans came from a type of chimpanzee in Central Africa. The virus may have jumped from chimpanzees to humans.
- Pathogen: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is a species of Lentivirus.
- Spread: HIV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and can also spread by contact with infected blood. It can also be spread from mother to child during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
- Symptoms: Primary symptoms of HIV infection are similar to other viral infections. As HIV infection progresses to AIDS, symptoms such as fatigue, swollen lymph glands, weakness, weight loss, recurring fever etc may occur.
- Treatment: There is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but medications can control the infection and prevent progression of the disease.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV):
- HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the body’s immune system. If not treated, it can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
Context: Merriam-Webster dictionary has selected gaslighting as the word of the year.
What is Gaslighting?
- Gaslighting has been defined as “psychological manipulation of an individual over an extended period of time that causes the victim to question the validity of their own thoughts, or perception that typically leads to confusion, loss of confidence and self-esteem, uncertainty of one’s emotional or mental stability, and a dependency on the perpetrator”.
- On a broader sense, it refers to the act or practice of grossly misleading someone, especially for a personal advantage.
Why was it selected?
There was a 1740% increase in lookups for gaslighting, with high interest throughout the year, resulting in its selection.
Origin of the term:
- The term originated from the title of a 1938 play by Patrick Hamilton, which involves a man attempting to make his wife believe that she is going insane.
- The mysterious activities of the man in the attic causes the gas lights of the house to dim but he convinces his wife that she is going insane.
- Recent context: In the era of fake news, conspiracy theories, Twitter trolls, and deepfakes, gas lighting term has become more relevant.
Context: Exotic animals such as Binturong have been used for gambling purposes in Manipur.
- Binturong, also known as bearcat, is an arboreal mammal is native to to south and southest Asia.
- The binturong is the only living species in the genus Arctictis. It is an important agent for seed dispersal.
- The binturong is omnivorous, feeding on small mammals, birds, fish, earthworms, insects and fruits. They are primarily nocturnal.
- Range in India: The binturong is confined to tall forest. In Assam, It has been recorded in Manas National Park, in the hill forests of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar Hills, Cachar and Hailakandi Districts.
- Threats: The population is declining, reducing by more than 30% since the mid-1980s. This is due to degradation of forests through logging and conversion of forests into farms.
- In some parts, it is considered a delicacy and also treated as an exotic pet.
- Protection: The animal has been designated as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.
- CITES Appendix III
- Schedule I of the Wild Life Protection Act 1973.
Context: The Prime Minister of India addressed the Manipur Sangai Festival.
About Sangai Festival:
- The festival is named after the state animal, Sangai, the brow-antlered deer found only in Manipur.
- Festival highlights the spirit and passion of the people of Manipur.
- It celebrates the biodiversity of India.
- Manipur Sangai Festival helps in promoting Manipur as a world-class tourism destination.
- Theme: Festival of One-ness.
- It is a rare sub species of brow antlered deer found only in Manipur. Its habitat is restricted to Keibal Lamjao National Park, which includes the floating wetlands (phumdis) of Loktak lake.
- Protection status:
- It is listed as ‘Endangered’ in IUCN Red List
- It has been part of Schedule I of the Indian Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972
- t is included in Appendix 1 of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.