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UPSC Prelims News 15th September 2022


UPSC Prelims News of 15th September 2022


4 New Tribes To ST List

Context: The Union Cabinet has approved the addition of four tribes to the list of Scheduled Tribes.

More on the News:

  • The Hatti tribe in the Trans-Giri area of Sirmour district in Himachal Pradesh, the Narikoravan and Kurivikkaran hill tribes of Tamil Nadu and the Binjhia in Chhattisgarh were added to list.
  • The cabinet has also added the Gond community residing in 13 districts of Uttar Pradesh, under the ST list from the Scheduled Caste list.
    • This includes five subcategories of the Gond community (Dhuria, Nayak, Ojha, Pathari, and Rajgond).

Process of Addition:

  • The process to include tribes in the ST list starts with the recommendation from the respective State governments.
  • The recommendations are then sent to the Tribal Affairs Ministry, which reviews and sends them to the Registrar General of India for approval.
  • The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes’ approval is needed before the list is sent to the Cabinet for a final decision.

Tribes Added in the List:



  • The Hattis are a close-knit community that derives their name from traditional occupation of selling home-grown crops, vegetables, meat, and wool at small-town markets known as ‘haats’.
  • Their native area is along the Himachal-Uttarakhand border, and the Hattis have been demanding ST status since 1967.
  • Hattis living in Jaunsar Bawar area in Uttarakhand, which shares a border with Sirmaur district, are given ST status.
Narikoravan and


  • The Narikuravas (jackal catchers) and Kuruvikaras (bird eaters) are nomadic tribal communities from Trichy and Villupuram, Tamil Nadu.
  • Narikoravan are indigenous to Tamil Nadu and their traditional occupation is hunting, honey collecting and basket making.
  • During British rule in India, they were placed under the Criminal Tribes Act of 1871.
  • The Binjhia is a tribal group found in Odisha and Jharkhand. The name Binjhia is derived from the word Vindhyas referring to Vindhya Hills.
  • Most of the members practice farming. Many of them also work as daily wage labourers.

UPSC Prelims News of 16th September 2022

North Korea’s Law On Pre-Emptive Nuclear Strikes

Context: North Korea passed a law giving itself powers to ‘automatically’ use preemptive nuclear strikes to protect itself.

More on the News

  • The new law replaces a 2013 law that gave powers to use nuclear weapons to repel invasion or attack from a hostile nuclear state and make retaliatory strikes.
  • This move comes as North Korea is planning to resume nuclear testing for the first time since 2017 after diplomatic meetings failed to persuade North Korea to abandon nuclear weapons development.

About the New Law

Preemptive Strikes The law gives North Korea to undertake preemptive nuclear strikes if it believes that there is an impending nuclear attack or threat to the state’s existence or the command organisation of its nuclear forces faces threat.


Centralized Power
  • The new law gives Supreme leader Kim Jong-un “all decisive powers” over nuclear weapons.
  • The nuclear weapons may be launched “automatically” if command-and-control system is threatened.


Non-sharing of Nuclear


  • The law bans the sharing of nuclear arms or technology with other countries.
  • This aims to prevent miscalculations among nuclear weapons states and misuse of nuclear weapons.


Non-nuclear States The new law does not threaten non-nuclear states with nuclear weapons unless they collaborate with a nuclear-armed country to attack North Korea.


International Acceptance The goal of the new law is to win international acceptance of North Korea’s status as a “responsible nuclear state.”



Fortification of Rice

Context: The Union government directed the State Governments to organize awareness workshops about the benefits of Fortified Rice.

What is Fortification?

  • Fortification is the addition of key vitamins and minerals such as iron, iodine, zinc, Vitamin A & D to staple foods such as rice, milk and salt to improve their nutritional content.

How is it done?

  • Various technologies are available to add micronutrients to regular rice, such as coating, dusting, and extrusion.
  • Extrusion involves the production of fortified rice kernels (FRKs) from a mixture using an ‘extruder’ machine. It is considered to be the best technology for India.
  • The FRKs are blended with regular rice to produce fortified rice.

Government Measures

  • Fortified rice will be supplied across the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) under the NFSA, ICDS, PM POSHAN and other welfare schemes in a phased manner by 2024.
  • The cost of rice fortification, estimated at around Rs 2,700 crore per annum, will be borne by the central government as part of a food subsidy.
  • Fortified rice shall be packed in bags with an imprinted ‘+F’ logo in blue and a ‘Fortified with Iron, Folic Acid, and Vitamin B1’ tagline in black.


The Child Helpline (1098)

Context: The Union government is planning to integrate the Child Helpline (1098) with the Emergency Response Support System (ERSS) 112.

Benefits of the move

  • It will ensure interoperability and help in enhancing the scope of emergency services available to children through voice call, SMS and be GPS and GIS enabled.
  • It will reduce the call response time considerably.

What is The Child Helpline (1098)?

  • It is a 24-hour a day, 365 days a year, free, emergency phone service for children in need of aid and assistance.
  • Operated by a private trust called Child line India Foundation, which receives funding from the Ministry of Women and Child Development under the Integrated Child Protection Scheme, which is now part of Mission Vatsalya.
  • Administered by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • It deals with different kinds of problems children might face, from family discord, food shortage, medical assistance, help with enrolment in schools, etc.

What is Emergency Response Support System (ERSS)?

  • ERSS is one of the key projects of the Ministry of Home Affairs under Nirbhaya Fund.
  • It has been designed to play a pivotal role in mitigation or preventing escalation of crime, especially against women and children.
  • ERSS provides a single emergency number (112), computer aided dispatch of field resources to the location of distress.
  • Citizens can send their emergency information through call, sms, email and through the 112 India mobile app.


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