UPSC Prelims News of 14th September 2022
Arattupuzha Velayudha Panicker
Context: Malayalam film Pathonpatham Noottandu, based on the life of Arattupuzha Velayudha Panicker, was recently released.
About Arattupuzha Velayudha Panicker
- Panicker was a social reformer from the Ezhava community who lived in the 19th century in the state of Kerala.
- He was born into a well-off family of merchants in Kerala’s Alappuzha district.
- ‘Panicker’ title was given to him by the then-king of Travancore in 1869. He was murdered by a group of upper-caste men in 1874.
- He is considered the ‘first martyr’ of the Kerala renaissance.
Role in Social Reform Movement:
- He is said to have challenged the domination of upper castes or ‘Savarnas’ and brought about changes in the lives of both men and women.
- Temple construction: Panicker is credited for building two Shiva temples that allowed entry to members of all castes and religions.
- Dignity of oppressed women: Panicker led the Achippudava Samaram strike at Kayamkulam in 1858 that allowed women belonging to oppressed groups the right to wear a lower garment that extended beyond the knees.
- The strike extended into Ethappu Samaram in 1859, a protest demanding the right to wear an upper body cloth by women belonging to backward castes.
- He led the Mukkuthi Samaram at Pandalam in 1860, demanding for the rights of lower-caste women to wear ‘mukkuthi’ or nose-ring, and other gold ornaments.
- Rights of agricultural labourers: Panicker led Karshaka Thozhilali Samaram, which was the first-ever strike by agricultural labourers in Kerala.
- Kathakali schools: Panicker established the first Kathakali Yogam (schools for the classical dance form Kathakali) for the Ezhava community in 1861.
- Panicker was a master of Kalaripayattu (the traditional martial arts practiced in Kerala) and other sports such as wrestling, swimming and horseback riding.
Context: The sixth edition of Japan-India Maritime Exercise 2022 (JIMEX 22) hosted by Indian Navy began in the Bay of Bengal from 11th September 2022.
The 2022 Edition:
- Indian participants: The Indian Navy is being represented by INS Sahyadri, a multi-purpose stealth frigate, and Anti Submarine Warfare Corvettes INS Kadmatt and INS Kavaratti.
- Phases: The exercise would be conducted in two phases–Exercises at sea and a harbour phase at Visakhapatnam.
- Significance: The sixth edition of JIMEX marks 10 years since the exercise’s first edition.
- Objective: JIMEX aims to consolidate the high degree of interoperability existing between maritime forces of the two countries, through complex exercises in the surface, sub-surface and air domains.
- The exercises are held biennially between Indian Navy and Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force.
Other Military Exercises with Japan:
- Annual joint land military exercise named ‘Dharma Guardian’
- Trilateral Maritime Exercise ‘Malabar’ with the USA
- Joint Air Force exercise ‘Shinyuu Maitri
Context: India and Nepal have decided to speed up the projects on Ramayana Circuit.
About Ramayana Circuit
- Ramayana Circuit is one among the fifteen thematic circuits identified for development under the Swadesh Darshan scheme of Ministry of Tourism.
- Other tourist circuits: Buddhist circle, Desert circle, Coastal circle, Eco circle, Himalayan circle, Heritage circle, Krishna circle, North-East circle, Ramayana circle, Rural circle, Spiritual circle, Sufi circle, Tirthankar circle, Tribal circle and Wildlife circle.
- The circuit will connect prominent places associated with the life of Lord Ram in India and Nepal. It will be operated by IRCTC.
- Nepal’s Janakpur is part of the Ramayana Circuit.
- Places in India developed under Ramayana Circuit:
- Ayodhya, Nandigram, Shringverpur & Chitrakoot (Uttar Pradesh)
- Sitamarhi, Buxar & Darbhanga (Bihar)
- Chitrakoot (Madhya Pradesh)
- Mahendragiri (Odisha)
- Jagdalpur (Chhattisgarh)
- Nashik & Nagpur (Maharashtra)
- Bhadrachalam (Telangana)
- Hampi (Karnataka)
- Rameshwaram (Tamil Nadu)
Swadesh Darshan scheme:
- The scheme was launched in 2014 -15 for integrated development of theme-based tourist circuits in the country.
- Objective: Develop theme-based tourist circuits on the principles of high tourist value, competitiveness, and sustainability in an integrated manner.
Exercise Pitch Black 2022
- Context: The Indian Air Force contingent participating in Exercise Pitch Black 22 in Australia has returned after successful participation.
- About: It is a biennial multinational warfare exercise hosted by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF).
- Aim: The aim of the exercise is to practice Offensive Counter Air (OCA) and Defensive Counter Air (DCA) combat, in a simulated war environment.
- It will enhance combat readiness and interoperability between partner nations.
- As inferred from the name of the exercise, it will take place in low light conditions.
- Other important exercises between India and Australia:
- Ex AUSTRA HIND (Army)
- Ex AUSINDEX (Navy)
- Malabar Exercise (With the Navies of USA, India, Australia and Japan)