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UPSC CSE 2022 – Most Important 100 Topics | Modern Indian History | Lecture 4 – PDF


Post Independence  India

  • The linguistic reorganization of states resulted in rationalizing the political map of India without seriously weakening its unity. Examine. (250 words)


  • Communal Riots and Regions most affected
  • Partition and then Independence: Punjab, Bengal and Assam, Sindh
  • Radcliff Commission and challenges before boundary commission
  • Radcliff Commission and its composition
  • Drawbacks of Commission
  • Division of sources
  • Finances
  • Defence personnel and equipment
  • Civil government
  • Assassination of Gandhi
  • Resettlement and Rehabilitation of Refugees
  • Shift to Constitutional Democracy


  • Policy of Equal Federation (1935-1947)
  • Plan of consolidation
  • Integration of Princely States: Junagadh, Kashmir and Hyderabad
  • Aftermath of Integration
  • Goa and Pondicherry
  • Tribal Integration
  • Roots of India Tribal Policy
  • Reasons for dismal performance of Tribal Policy
  • Positive Development happened due to state’s Initiative since 1947
  • Issue of language
  • The Official Language
  • Features of Official Language Act


  • Economic Development and Planning
  • Ideas of Development
  • Planning
  • Formation of Planning Commission
  • First five year plan
  • Second five year plan
  • Achievements of Plans from 1947 to 1965
  • Key controversies regarding 5 year plans
  • Green Revolution
  • Prevailing Conditions before the introduction of Green Revolution
  • Initiatives prior to Green Revolution to boost Agriculture
  • Government’s other positive initiative during Green Revolution Period
  • Positive and negative impact of Green Revolution
  • Operation Flood and Cooperatives
  • Formation of Amul
  • Starting and impact of Operation Flood
  • Limitations of Co-operativization
  • Development of land reforms in India between 1947 and early 1960’s
  • Abolition of intermediaries
  • Tenancy reforms
  • Ceiling on land holdings
  • Bhoodan Movement
  • Aims and advantages of Bhoodan movement


  • The JP movement and Emergency 1975-77: Testing of Indian democracy tested
  • Background to emergency (Economic context, Gujarat and Bihar movements, Conflict with Judiciary)
  • Declaration of emergency (Crisis and Response)
  • Controversies regarding emergency
  • Lessons from emergency
  • Politics after Emergency (LS elections 1977 and Janata Party)
  • The Opposition: Initial years of BJP
  • The Naxalite Movement
  • Communalism
  • Secularism and democracy
  • Ayodhya dispute: Demolition and after
  • Communalism and use of state power
  • Revival and growth of communalism
  • Anti-muslim riots in Gujarat
  • The Punjab Crisis
  • Operation Blue Star
  • Demand of Khalistan
  • Basis of Regionalism: Politics in the states
  • Roots of tension
  • Challenges of Regionalism
  • Tamil Nadu (Dravidian Movement), Andhra Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal and J&K (external and internal disputes)
  • Secessionist movement in North-Eastern states
  • Accommodation and National Integration


  • Nature of Popular Movements
  • Environment Movements
  • Chipko Movement
  • Narmada Bachao Andalon (Sardar Sarovar Project, Debates and struggles)
  • Party based Movement and Non-party based movements
  • Caste, Untouchability, Anti-caste politics and strategies
  • Issues of Dalit
  • Dalit panthers: Origin and their activities
  • Agrarian Struggles
  • Bharatiya Kisan Union: Growth and its characteristics
  • National Fish Worker’s Forum
  • Anti-Arrack Movement: Origin and its linkage
  • Indian Women since Independence
  • Lesson from popular movements

Linguistic Reorganization of States

Formation of Linguistic States

  • India is a land of many languages, each with its distinct script, grammar, vocabulary and literary tradition. In 1917, the Indian National had initiated creation of an organizational structure based on linguistic provinces. After INC’s Nagpur Session in 1920, the principle was extended and formalized with the creation of provincial Congress Committee by linguistic zones. The linguistic reorganization of the Congress was encouraged and supported by among others Lokmanya Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi.
  • After the bitter partition on the basis of religion the then PM Nehru was apprehensive of dividing country further on the basis of language. Nonetheless, demands for separate state based on linguistic identity got momentum as seen in movements for Ayikya Kerala, Samyukta Maharashtra and Vishalandhra.
  • The Constituent Assembly in 1948 appointed the Linguistic Provinces Commission, headed by Justice S.K. Dhar, to enquire into the desirability of linguistic provinces especially in case of Andhra, Karnataka, Kerala, and Maharashtra. The Dhar Commission advised against this at that time reason being it might threaten national unity and would be administratively inconvenient.
  • However, to appease the vocal votaries of linguistic states, the Congress appointed a committee, also known as the JVP committee,) in December 1948 consisting of Nehru, Sardar Patel and Pattabhi Sitaramayya to examine the question afresh.
  • In its 1949 report the JVP Committee revoked the seal of approval that the Congress had once put on the principle of linguistic provinces; it argued that the time was not suitable for formation of creation of new provinces.
  • The demands for separate state on the linguistic basis didn’t subside. There were renewed movements aimed at linguistic autonomy in 1948-1949.
  • There was the campaign for Samyukta Karnataka, uniting Kannada speaking spread across the states of Madras, Mysore, Bombay, Hyderabad, Samyukta Maharashtra, Maha Gujarat movement.
  • In case of Punjab, struggle brought together both the factors language and religion (Sikh)

The Case of Andhra:

  • the first linguistic state The speakers of Telugu asked the Congress to implement its old resolution in favour of linguistic states. The method they used to advance their causes included: Petitions, representations, street marches, parts.
  • To support their cause, former Madras CM T. Prakasam resigned from the Congress party in 1950.
  • Another politician Swami Sitaram went on hunger strike to support Telegu people’s cause. Later he called off his hunger strike on the appeal of veteran Gandhian leader Vinobha Bhave
  • On 19 October 1952, a popular freedom fighter, Potti Sriramulu undertook a fast unto death over the demand for a separate Andhra; unfortunately he passed away on 15 December 1952.
  • After his death people were agitated and it was followed by rioting, demonstrations, hartals and violence all over Andhra.
  • The Vishalandhra movement (as the movement for a separate Andhra was called) turned violent.
  • Finally, the then PM Nehru announced the formation of a separate Andhra State on 19 December 1952.

The States Reorganization Committee:

  • The formation of Andhra Pradesh spurred the struggle for making of other states on linguistic lines in other parts of the country.
  • Hence Nehru appointed in August 1953 the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) with Justice Fazl Ali, K.M. Panikkar and Hridaynath Kunzru as members, to examine “objectively and dispassionately” the entire question of the reorganization of the states of the Union. The SRC submitted its report in October 1955.
  • It recognized for the most part on the linguistic principle and recommended redrawing of state boundaries on that basis. The then government accepted the SRC’s recommendations.
  • Finally, the States Reorganization Act was passed by parliament in November 1956.
  • It provided for fourteen states and six centrally administered territories.
  • SRC opposed the splitting of Bombay & Punjab.
  • Therefore, the strongest reaction against SRC’s report came from Maharashtra, where widespread rioting took place.
  • To fulfill their demand of separate state for Marathi speaking people, there was the broad based Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti and on the other hand in Bombay state, there was Maha Gujarat Janata Parishad led the movement for Gujarati speaking people.
  • Eventually in May 1960, the state of Bombay was bifurcated into Maharashtra, Gujarat with Bombay city being included in Maharashtra and Ahmedabad being made the capital of Gujarat.

  • The other state where an exception was made to the linguistic principle was Punjab. In 1956, the state of PEPSU had been merged with Punjab, which remained a trilingual state having three language speakers-Punjabi, Hindi and Pahari within its border. In the Punjabi speaking part of the state, there was a strong demand for carving out a separate Punjabi Suba (Punjabi Speaking State). This demand got communal overtones. T
  • he Akali Dal led Sikh Communalists, while the Jan Sangh, led Hindu communalists. SRC had rejected the demands in Punjab, as it would not solve either the language or the communal problem of Punjab.
  • Finally in 1966, Indira Gandhi agreed to the division of Punjab into two Punjabi and Hindi speaking status of Punjab and Haryana, with the Pahari speaking district of Kangra and a part of the Hoshiarpur district being merged with HP.
  • Finally, after more than ten years of continuous strife and popular struggles, the linguistic reorganization of India was largely completed.

 Unique cases of reorganization

  1. Sikkim:
  • At the time of Independence, Sikkim was a “Protectorate” of India. It meant that it was neither a part of India like other states nor a complete sovereign country. Sikkim’s defence and foreign relation were managed by India while the power of internal administration was with the
  • Sikkim’s Chogyal Monarch. The people of the state were unhappy with this arrangement and aspired for democratic set up for governance. The majority of the people of the state were
  • Nepali and ruler was from minority community Lepcha-Bhutia. The people of the state got support for this cause from the Government of India and from the leaders of both the communities

  • In 1974’s Assembly Elections, the Sikkim Congress swept the polls and they stood for greater integration with India. The Assembly sought the status of “Associate State” initially then in 1975 passed a full-fledged resolution of integration with India. This was followed by immediate referendum that sealed the approval on assembly’s request of integration. The Indian Parliament accepted this plea and accepted it as a state

  1. Goa’s Liberation

  • The prolonged rule of British Empire came to an end in 1947. However, the Portugal refused to withdraw from the territories of Goa, Diu and Daman, which they ruled since 16the Century. The people of Goa were suppressed by Portuguese misrule and they were denied of basic civil rights to them, Portuguese carried out coerced religious conversions as well

  • Initially, the Government of India, tried to convince the Portuguese to vacate these territories and consider the popular movements of local people. The Situation became worse in 1955 when a group Goan and Indian protesters staging a liberation march were shot at and killed by the Portuguese.
  • Nehru government responded by instituting a blockade around Goa, however this was bypassed by the Portuguese by adopting the air route to open trade with Pakistan and Srilanka.
  • Eventually on 18 December 1961, under operation Vijay, the Indian troops crossed the border into Goa and after two days of action the Portuguese surrendered on 19 December




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